Theoretical approaches to the study of communication in social psychology

Communication is a psychological definition of an important human need at any age. Thanks to him, people's activities are planned, controlled and carried out, friendly and loving relationships are established. For a more extensive understanding of this type of communication in psychology, sociology, social science and pedagogy, it is necessary to study what communication means, what its goals and functions are.

Communications in society

Communication from the perspective of psychology

The term “communication” refers to different forms of interaction between people, which are carried out using various sign means, such as:

  • facial expressions;
  • symbols;
  • images.

The desire to contact another person arises from the need to act together.

Significance in psychology

To clearly understand what communication is, it is necessary to consider the various definitions of the term. They will help to form a multifaceted understanding of this method of communication:

  1. Human communication is considered in psychology to be a complex and multifaceted process that is aimed at establishing and developing contacts between a group of people.
  2. According to the literature on the culture of communications, communication is a unique process of exchanging the results of spiritual and mental activity between people. This may include assessments, thoughts, feelings, judgments, attitudes.
  3. Communication is also a basic psychological need of a person, which contributes to the formation of personality. In the process of interpersonal contacts, the subjective world of one individual opens up to another. This allows a person to self-determinate and self-present himself in society.

Communication with adults and peers in preschool age

Communication with adults and peers in preschool age

A preschooler’s communication becomes more complex; this is facilitated by a higher level of development of thinking, imagination, speech and other mental processes. In preschool childhood there is a transition to non-situational forms of communication, i.e. beyond the immediate perceived situation. The child becomes able to communicate about various objects and phenomena that are absent in the field of perception.

M. I. Lisina identified two forms of communication with adults in preschool age: extra-situational-cognitive and extra-situational-personal

(Table 8.2).

Forms of communication between a child and an adult in preschool age

Approximate date of appearance in ontogenesis

Place of communication in the child’s general activity system

The leading need for communication

Leading motive of communication

Basic means of communication

The importance of the form of communication in mental development

Communication against the background of the child’s joint activities with an adult and independent activities to familiarize himself with the physical world

Need for friendly attention, cooperation and respect

Cognitive: adult as a polymath, source of knowledge about extra-situational objects, partner in discussing causes and connections in the physical world

Primary penetration into the extrasensory essence of phenomena, development of visual forms of thinking

Communication against the background of the child’s theoretical and practical knowledge of the social world and in the form of independent episodes

The need for benevolent attention, cooperation, respect from an adult with the leading role of the desire for empathy and mutual understanding

Personal: an adult as a holistic person with knowledge, skills and social and moral standards

Introducing to the moral and ethical values ​​of society, transition to discursive thinking, creation of motivational, intellectual and communicative readiness for schooling

In preschool age, the importance of communication with peers increases significantly, during which the child implements the norms and values ​​learned in communication with adults.

A peer is a partner in joint activities, whose friendly attention, respect and recognition become important for the preschooler.

Case Study

In an experimental study by L. B. Miteva, conducted under the leadership of M. I. Lisina, it was proven that a child’s communication with an adult is ahead in its level of development of a child’s communication with a peer. Age dynamics show that the younger the child, the greater the gap between the level of communication with an adult and with a peer; by the end of preschool age, the level of communication of children in both areas is somewhat closer, but at the same time, communication with an adult in basic parameters is ahead of the corresponding indicators of communication with peers . This indicates that communication with adults, setting the “zone of proximal development,” leads to communication with peers.

There are three main types of motives for communication between preschoolers and peers


business motive,

under the influence of which a preschooler encourages a peer to communicate as a partner in practical interaction, both experience positive emotional states from the very process of joint activity;

personal motive,

which manifests itself in the phenomenon of the “invisible mirror”, i.e. a preschooler sees in the actions of a peer an attitude towards himself and almost does not notice everything else in him;

cognitive motive,

under the influence of which communication is carried out with a peer as a partner equal to the child, which can be used for the development of cognition and self-knowledge.

At preschool age, all three types of motives operate: the position of leaders at three or four years old is occupied by business ones with clearly defined personal ones; at four to five years - business and personal with the dominance of the former; at five to six years old - business, personal, cognitive, with an almost equal position of business and personal and with a close interweaving of personal and cognitive; at six or seven years old - business and personal.

M.I. Lisina and A.G. Ruzskaya highlighted the features of communication between preschoolers and peers, which are significantly different from their communication with adults (Fig. 8.2):

• a large variety and wide range of communicative actions, which is due to the extensive functional composition of peer communication and the variety of communicative tasks;

• intense emotional saturation, which is expressed in a large number of expressive and facial manifestations and emotional orientation of actions in relation to a peer;

• non-standard and unregulated communication of children, looseness and irregularity of actions, use of unpredictable and non-standard means of communication;

• dominance of proactive actions over reactive ones, which manifests itself in the inability to continue and develop dialogue, which can disintegrate due to lack of response and cause conflicts.

8.2. Features of communication with peers in preschool age
There are three forms of communication between preschoolers and peers: emotional-practical, situational-business and non-situational-business.

The main content of communication between children in the middle of preschool age is business cooperation. In the process of situational business communication, children are busy with a common cause; they need to coordinate their actions with other partners and take into account their activity to obtain a common result. Such interaction can be called cooperation, the need for which becomes very significant for children’s communication. In addition to the need for cooperation, the need for peer recognition and respect is also clearly manifested. In the communication of preschoolers with peers, elements of competitiveness and competitiveness begin to appear. Among the means of communication at this stage, speech means begin to dominate.

By the end of preschool age, stable selective attachments are formed between children, and the first prerequisites for friendly relations arise. Older preschoolers form small groups (two or three people) and express a clear preference for their friends. Throughout preschool age, differentiation in the children's team increases: some preschoolers become popular and preferred, while others are rejected. A child’s status in a peer group is influenced by a large number of factors, the most significant of which is the ability to empathize and help peers.

Thus, in preschool age, significant changes occur in the content, motives and means of communication with adults and peers, common among which are the transition to non-situational forms and the predominance of speech means. All factors that facilitate a preschooler’s communication with adults and peers in the form of joint activities, verbal communication, or just mental communication are the strongest stimulants of his mental development.

Source: Communication with adults and peers in preschool age Communication with adults and peers in preschool age Communication of a preschooler becomes more complex, this is facilitated by a higher level of development of thinking, imagination, speech and

The essence of communication, purpose, functions

Verbal communication - what is it in psychology

Sociologists believe that interpersonal communication is an excellent way to convey social experience and culture to other people. Domestic psychologists support the idea that the purpose of communication is to create unity between the exchange of information and activities in society. But it is unrealistic to make an exchange if there is no understanding between people, because it helps to achieve success and establish close contact.

Important! Therefore, understanding is the main goal of interpersonal contacts. The result of communications depends on it.

Communication goals

Communication in a person’s life performs 8 main functions.


To understand what the contact function means and why it is needed, it is enough to remember the main fear of a person - the fear of being misunderstood.

Important! This barrier prevents the establishment of close and long-term relationships with people.

The more one person communicates with another, the easier it is to establish contact between them and, as a result, understanding.


The information function is responsible for the generation, transmission and reception of information. It is implemented in several stages:

  • first, differences in the awareness of individuals who are aimed at entering into psychological contact are equalized;
  • then beliefs, thoughts, facts are transmitted, and conclusions are drawn about what was heard;
  • at the third stage, the desire to understand the interlocutor is formed.

This function of communication is important because messages, plans, decisions and opinions help to establish understanding between contacting entities.


The incentive function allows you to stimulate a person to take active action. In this case, communication allows you to manage people.

Additional Information. In the modern world, this function is used in all areas of activity for manipulation.

Commercials are a prime example of successful implementation of a feature.


The coordination function allows people to engage in joint activities. Thanks to it, a group of people can coordinate their actions and effectively complete the task. If the function is implemented poorly, such communication will bring disappointment and losses.


Thanks to the emotive function, people are able to arouse the necessary emotional experiences in their partner, as well as change their own state.

Important! The transfer of emotions can occur both verbally and non-verbally.

If the methods of emotional regulation between partners are different, then the effective implementation of this function in communication will be impossible, and people will encounter misunderstandings and conflicts.

Understanding function

The terminology of the word “understanding” is associated with such concepts as “meaning” and “meaning”. Based on this, the main task of this function is to explain to the two people in contact the purpose of their communication, as well as the further development of events. Understanding also allows partners to get to know each other and predict the behavior, attitudes and state of the interlocutor in the future.

Influence function

The influence function is similar to the incentive function. Its main goal is to change the behavior, state, personal and semantic formations of the interlocutor.

Important! To implement the function, a variety of psychosocial influence techniques can be used. It can be used for both positive and negative purposes.

Ratio function

The relationship management function allows an individual to realize and fix his place in business, status, and interpersonal relationships. With its help, a person has his own circle of interests, important and necessary people, as well as acquaintances for specific matters.

Self-awareness and communication motivation

Read more: Problems of self-awareness in domestic theories of personality motives



1. Motivational personality traits and communication

2. Problems of self-awareness in domestic theories of personality motives


List of used literature


1. Communication is an important condition of human existence. At all times, a person’s satisfaction of his needs occurred, as a rule, using communication. For this reason, communication is related to the problem of motivation, being a chosen and planned method, a means of satisfying needs, drives, and desires.

The first part of the work examines the issues of motivational personality traits and communication. This chapter is written on the basis of a review of the study of the works of domestic authors L.I. Marisova, A.V. Vedenova, S.L. Rubinshteina, F.T. Mikhailova, A.V. Zaporozhets, A.N. Leontyeva, M.I. Lisina, O.A. Tyrnova, N.G. Polekhin, V.N. Lozotseva, V. Hartana, Ya.L. Kolominsky and others.

2. The problem of self-consciousness (I-ego, I-image, I-concept) is quite relevant at the present time. This is due to the need to determine the degree of importance of a person in modern conditions, his ability to transform himself and the world around him.

In domestic theories of personality, the main theoretical approaches to the study of a person’s self-awareness are revealed. This paper presents the results of an empirical study of the relationship between self-actualization and self-esteem in the works of domestic authors I.S. Kona, E.T. Sokolova, A.A. Nalchadzhyan, V.N. Kozieva, A.A. Bodaleva, V.V. Stolina, S.R. Panteleeva, N.I. Sarzhveladze, I.I. Chesnokova, Z.V. Diyanova and T.M. Shchegoleva.

1. Motivational personality traits and communication

Communication is a private type of communication. When people and animals interact, mental contact occurs. This means that in the process of communication there is not just the receipt or exchange of information, but also the evocation of emotions, the exchange of emotions - empathy or the manifestation of a negative attitude towards the communication partner. Therefore, human communication is a connection between people, leading to the emergence of mutual mental contact, manifested in the transfer of information (verbal and non-verbal) to the communication partner and with the goal of establishing mutual understanding and mutual experience. This understanding of communication means that it is incorrect to talk about communication with nature, art, etc. Reading literature and watching television programs also cannot be classified as communication, since here the process is one-way: from the writer or speaker to the subject, and there is no reverse process.

Most authors (N.F. Dobrynin, 1969; A.G. Kovalev, 1963; A.V. Petrovsky, 1970; K. Obukhovsky, 1972) tend to believe that the need for communication is a specific independent human need, different from other needs , although in practice it is often reduced to more specific needs: the need for impressions (M.Yu. Kistyakovskaya, 1970), for safety (A. Paper, 1962), for the comfort of contact with a soft, warm body (X. Harlow, M. Harlow, 1966) and others. Therefore, the position of L.I. seems more logical. Marisova (1978), who talks about the hierarchical structure of communicative needs, which serves as a motivational-need basis for communication. In this regard, she identified nine groups of communication needs:

1) in another person and relationships with him;

2) in belonging to a social community;

3) in empathy and sympathy;

4) in care, help and support from others;

5) in providing assistance, care and support to others;

6) in establishing business connections for joint activities and cooperation;

7) in the constant exchange of experience and knowledge;

8) in evaluation by others, in respect, authority;

9) in developing a common understanding and explanation of the objective world and everything that happens in it with other people.

A number of scientists (A.V. Vedenov, 1963; D.T. Campbell, 1965) believe that a person has an innate need for the process of communication itself. However, this is not recognized by all scientists (S.L. Rubinshtein, 1946; F.T. Mikhailov, 1976; A.V. Zaporozhets, 1978; A.N. Leontyev, 1983). M.I. Lisina also believes that this need is formed during life, as a result of the child’s contact with adults.

M.I. Lisina identified four stages in the development of the need for communication and four criteria by which this need can be judged. The first stage and criterion is the child’s attention and interest in the adult; the second is the emotional manifestations of the child towards the adult; third – the child’s proactive actions aimed at attracting the interest of an adult; the fourth is the child’s sensitivity to the attitude and assessment of an adult. M.I. Lisina defines the need for communication (communication) as the desire to know and evaluate other people, and through them and with their help to self-knowledge and self-esteem. She believes that the need for communication is built in ontogenesis on the basis of other needs that begin to function earlier. She considers the organic vital needs of the child (for food, warmth, etc.) to be the basis of the communicative need. Life practice helps the child discover the existence of an adult as a single source of all benefits coming to him, and the interests of effective management of such a source create the child’s need to isolate and explore it (the need to communicate with an adult).

The second basic need leading to the emergence of a communicative need is, according to M.I. Lisina, the need for new impressions (which is discussed by L.I. Bozhovich, 1972; M.Yu. Kistyakovskaya, 1970; D. Berlin, I960; G. Kantor, 1963; R. Fantz K., 1966).

M.I. Lisina believes that the main function of communication is the organization of joint activities with other people for active adaptation to the world around us, including its transformation.

Through the process of communication, a person satisfies the need for impressions, recognition and support, cognitive needs and many other spiritual needs. It is therefore no coincidence that foreign psychology identifies such a collective concept as the “motive of affiliation.” These are the needs: to contact people, to be a member of a group, to interact with others, to provide and receive help.

The motive of communication is understood by M.I. Lisina according to A.N. Leontiev – as an object of communication, i.e. her motive is another person, a communication partner. True, almost immediately she writes that a motive is an objectified need and that motives grow from needs, the leading of which are: the need for impressions, for active activity, for recognition and support. The need for communication is expressed differently in different people, which is why they talk about extroverts and introverts. However, according to L.S. Sapozhnikova (1973), an unambiguous connection between the desire to communicate and extra- and introversion is not revealed.

According to her data, the desire for communication among adolescents is associated with the level of aspirations. In a person with an adequate level of aspirations, the desire to communicate is expressed moderately; in persons with an inadequate level, it is either increased or decreased. In girls, regardless of the level of aspiration, the desire to communicate is more pronounced than in boys.

Considering the human need for emotional and trusting communication (affiliation), I.V. Kuznetsova (1999) identifies two trends - hope for affiliation (expectation of a relationship of sympathy, mutual understanding during communication) and fear of rejection (fear that communication will be formal). The combination of these trends gives four types of communication motivation:

1) high hope for affiliation, low sensitivity to rejection; in this case the person is sociable to the point of importunity;

2) low need for affiliation, high sensitivity to rejection; in this case, the need for support and understanding remains unsatisfied and the person withdraws into the world of his experiences;

3) low hope for affiliation and sensitivity to rejection; in this case the person prefers loneliness;

4) high hope for affiliation and sensitivity to rejection; a person has a strong internal conflict: he strives for communication and at the same time avoids it.

I.V. Kuznetsova showed that a weak need for affiliation, combined with a strong achievement motive, leads to a preference for the business qualities of a partner, while a strong need for affiliation, combined with a low achievement motive, leads to a preference for friendly relations. The greatest results in group work are achieved by individuals with a strong need for affiliation and a high achievement motive.

As shown by O.A. Tyrnova (1996) the leading motives for communication are: for girls - the desire to share various thoughts and experiences, as well as curiosity; among young men there is a commonality of interests and activities.

The goals of communication can be functional and objective. The functional goals of communication can be:

– helping another person;

– receiving help;

– searching for a partner for conversation, joint games, activities, etc. (i.e. interaction partner);

– searching for a person from whom you can get understanding, sympathy, emotional response, praise;

– self-expression (communication with those who give the opportunity to demonstrate strength, intelligence, abilities, skills);

– introducing another (others) to one’s own or universal values ​​(education, training);

– a change in the opinion, intentions, behavior of another person.

In connection with these goals, the central point in the motivation of communication becomes the choice of a permanent or situational communication partner (goal-object), and for a psychological researcher - the study of the reasons and factors that determine such a choice or refusal of it.

The most common reason for choosing a permanent communication partner, in particular by children, according to many authors, is the attractiveness of another person as a person in terms of moral, business or physical qualities, the manifestation of sympathy, love for this person, i.e. emotional attitude. Thus, in preschoolers, attachment to peers is ensured by such qualities of the latter as sensitivity, responsiveness, care and attention, fairness, friendliness, consideration of the interests of others, and friendliness. As N.G. showed Polekhin (1971), the need for students to communicate with teachers outside of class time arises if the latter have the following qualities: humanity, good character, sense of humor, tact. A teacher must have erudition, the ability to find contact, be a good conversationalist, and understand students.

Business qualities (intelligence, ability to organize a game, study, work) can also be the reason for choosing a permanent or temporary communication partner (V.N. Lozotseva, 1978; V. Hartan, 1970; Ya.L. Kolominsky, 1976). In the emergence of attachment to someone, a person’s external attractiveness can also play a role (and already in children 3–7 years old) (T.A. Repina, 1988).

An important role in choosing a communication partner is played by the presence of common interests, values, worldview, as well as the need for cooperation and interaction in the process of receiving or providing assistance. In some cases, the choice of a communication partner is determined by external factors: proximity of residence, acquaintance of parents (for children), etc.

The stability of student communication pairs (and, consequently, the stability of the communication motive), according to I.K. Shirokova (1973), does not depend on the closeness of partners in terms of sociometric status and extraversion, but is associated with closeness in terms of neuroticism and emotional expansiveness; In addition, pairs with opposite values ​​of nonverbal intelligence and the strength of the nervous system turned out to be stable.

In general, data on psychological factors (motivators) influencing the choice of a communication partner and the stability of communication pairs seem at first glance to be quite contradictory. N.N. Obozov (1979) found that people with similar personality characteristics are more likely to be friends. T.B. Kartseva (1981), having studied pairs of friends and enemies, found that they are connected both by the principle of similarity and by the principle of contrast. More than half of the friends turned out to be rather reserved people, about half of them had the same level of intelligence, and the other half - different; slightly more than half of the friends showed different levels of dominance and “preoccupied-careless.” It turned out that two reasonable, cautious, prudent people, or timid and indecisive people, rarely become friends. In fact, these contradictions are largely surmountable, if we take into account that the innate qualities in compatible couples are often contrasting, and the acquired qualities (values, attitudes, etc.) are often similar.

N.P. Erastov (1979) gives a classification of communication motives, which is essentially based on different types: motive-need, motive-interest, motive-habit, motive-whim and motive-duty. Unfortunately, the author’s disclosure of the inner content of these motives is not always logical.

In addition to the above classification, when comparing the motives of communication between the communicator and the addressee N.P. Erastov identifies three types of their correspondence to each other: interacting (in the process of communication they come closer in content to each other, although initially they are even different), opposing (they exclude each other, are opposite in direction - one wants to know the truth, and the other does not want to tell it) and independently occurring (not influencing each other: those communicating have different goals, but each has nothing against the goal of the other).

The motives for communication can be business or non-business (personal). The latter are related to acquaintance, friendship, affection, love. In turn, these motives can be divided according to two types of communication - desirable and undesirable, which are based on different motives for communication (desire or reluctance to communicate with a given person).

Read more: Problems of self-awareness in domestic theories of personality motives

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Types of communication

Nonverbal communication - what is it in psychology

The exchange of information between people can be extremely diverse. A communicative classification will help you understand what communication is, what its role is in society, and what types it comes in.

Types of communication

By content

When communication is built between people, defining its goals is the main task at the very beginning. Therefore, dividing communication by content makes it possible to establish the motives for contact. According to this classification, communication occurs:

  1. Activity. There is an exchange of skills, abilities, operations and actions between individuals.
  2. Motivational. With such communication, people exchange needs, interests, and motivations.
  3. Air-conditioned. Thanks to this type, one person is able to make an exchange of physiological and mental states.
  4. Cognitive. The main purpose of such communication is to transfer knowledge.
  5. Material. When communicating, people exchange products and objects.

By purpose

According to goals, communication is divided into 2 types:

  • social, in which the goal is to expand and strengthen interpersonal contacts;
  • biological, which is required by society for the support and development of the organism.

Via communication channel

According to the communication channel, communication is divided into the following types:

  1. Non-verbal. The exchange of information between people is carried out using gestures and facial expressions.
  2. Verbal. This channel of social communication is realized through speech.
  3. Artificial. Communication is carried out through unique amulets, tattoos, and symbols that have a certain meaning. This type also includes books, the press, telephones, television and radio broadcasting.


By means of communication there are:

  1. Indirect. Communication is carried out with the help of intermediaries.
  2. Direct. Conversations between people take place in personal contact.
  3. Indirect. In this communication, various means and tools are used to exchange information between people. Social networks are a prime example of such communication.
  4. Direct. Communication occurs through natural organs, such as vision and hearing.

By contact

Depending on the contact with the interlocutor, communication can be:

  1. Indirect. This type of communication is considered indirect. Exchange between people occurs when they are distant from each other. For example, this is correspondence, telephone conversation.
  2. Direct. It is direct communication in which subjects are close to each other and exchange information using facial expressions, gestures and speech. This type is considered the most complete, since in the process individuals are able to gain maximum knowledge about each other.

According to the conditions of the situation

Depending on the situation, communication occurs:

  1. Official. Official communication is carried out exclusively in the business sphere. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of formalities and rules.
  2. Unofficial. Private communication is not limited to a set of rules. It can happen in any area.

Motives for communication

Motives of communication - Lecture notes, section Psychology, Methods of teaching psychology: lecture notes Section I According to the Concept of Activity Developed by an Outstanding Soviet Psychologist.

According to the concept of activity developed by the outstanding Soviet psychologist A. N. Leontyev (1903–1979), activity consists of a set of actions and operations, and the main difference between one activity and another is the specificity of their objects. To analyze an activity means to find out its motives, to describe the types of actions and operations that make up this activity. Motives for activity can be either conscious or unconscious. The action is prompted by a conscious goal, that is, by the result that can be obtained by this action.

As a communicative activity, communication can be presented as a process of human activity aimed at another person (at his feelings, motives, actions), expressed through various communicative means (words, gestures, facial expressions) and prompted by appropriate motives (to know another person as a person) to realize one or another communicative need (to come into contact with another person, to introduce a partner to your values). Communicative actions

- this is a person’s activity in relation to another person, pursuing certain goals: to convey information, change behavior, influence the feelings of a partner.
Communicative operations
are ways of carrying out communicative actions.

Motives of pedagogical communication. Since activity in communication is aimed at the communication partner, it can be argued that the subject

communicative activity is another person - a communication partner. Moreover, the subject of activity in communication can be not just an abstract partner, but one or another feature of a specific person acting as a communication partner. This is especially important to take into account when analyzing a teacher’s communication with his students, since their interaction is always of a concrete nature.

It is obvious that a student is attracted or repelled not just by a person with a teaching diploma, but by a specific personality. Thus, in communication with one teacher, the subject of the student’s communicative activity may be the teacher’s high competence in a specific field of knowledge. The student is attracted by the teacher’s reading and erudition, his ability to solve any mathematical problem or analyze a particular historical situation. Therefore, the internal motivation for a student to communicate with such a teacher will be primarily cognitive motives: the student enters into communication to learn something new and interesting, to test the level of his competence in a certain area of ​​knowledge, and to learn to solve more complex problems.

In communication with another teacher, the subject of a student’s communicative activity can be the teacher’s high morality, responsiveness, his ability to understand the inner world of his student and provide him with the necessary help and support in resolving his personal issues. Most likely, the student in communicative activities with this teacher will be motivated mainly by moral motives. Since the student enters into communication not so much in order to learn something interesting, to master some new methods of intellectual and practical activity, he will be attracted by the teacher’s pedagogical tact, respectful attitude towards his (the student’s) personality, and interest in his fate.

For pedagogical analysis, the moral meaning of communication between the teacher and students, the pedagogical expediency of the methods and techniques used by the teacher, as well as those moral new formations that are formed in the process of their communication are of decisive importance. It is important that the teacher not only pay attention to the outwardly visible manifestations of the activity of his students, but also understand the reasons for this activity, see the motives that prompt students to commit this or that act, and show concern for the moral meanings of these actions.

Source: Motives of communication Motives of communication Psychology Lecture notes Methods of teaching psychology: lecture notes Section I. The site has almost any essay, course work, notes, lecture, diploma, homework, etc. educational material.

Features of communication

Functions of communication in psychology and their brief description

After the term “communication” has become clear, what it is and what it is needed for, it’s time to study its features. They will help you build proper communication:

  1. For quality communication, the presence of two active individuals is necessary.
  2. During a conversation, it is necessary to have mutual influence on each other, both emotional and physiological.
  3. Partners must have a single or similar information exchange system.
  4. When communicating, there must be room for communication barriers to arise.

Basic Rules

In addition to these norms, there are social rules that can improve communication between people.

Communication styles

In real life, we often have to perform the described social roles not in turn, but simultaneously. Each of us has a fairly rich set of different social roles, which can be presented in the form of a kind of “role fan”. Some petals of this “fan” may correspond to various formal roles: “director”, “competent specialist”, “patient”, other petals of the “fan” will be adequate to intragroup roles: “leader”, “cheerful storyteller”, “indisputable authority”... Third the group of petals of the “fan” is represented by a set of interpersonal roles: “friend”, “protector”. The fourth group of petals of the “fan” corresponds to individual roles: “capable student”, “brave and decisive person”...

In each specific situation, a person does not reveal his entire “fan,” but only part of it. Those parts of the “fan” that are visible at a given moment of communication are called the actual role of a person. The actual role is a combination of different social roles in a given situation. It reflects a person’s desire to appear before his partners and himself in one capacity or another. This is a certain way of psychological protection of the individual.

Rules of communication (communication)

To prevent interpersonal relationships with friends, colleagues or a loved one from deteriorating over time, you need to learn the basic rules of communication:

  1. To create a trusting and informative conversation, visual contact is necessary.
  2. It is advisable to speak only to the point. Expressions that do not carry any semantic meaning should be excluded from the vocabulary.
  3. The conversation must always be maintained by asking questions and clarifying information.
  4. To keep the conversation going, you need to answer in detail. It is better to exclude monosyllabic and simple answers when speaking.
  5. You should not use words unknown to the interlocutor. The language and reasoning must be understandable to both.
  6. A good mood is the key to an interesting conversation. Even a business meeting could use a little humor and smiles.
  7. There should be no things in your hands during a conversation. They can take the interlocutor's attention to themselves.
  8. Pauses during conversation are insidious enemies. Long silence (more than 10 seconds) will cause discomfort.

Communication between a person and another individual is an art that anyone can master if they follow the above recommendations.

The psychological essence of communication: concept, motives, goals, means,

content, functions.

Approaches to understanding communication Communication is a side of activity ( Leontyev, A.N.

Problems of mental development. M., 1981).

Communication is one of the types of human activity (Ananyev, B.G.

Man as an object of knowledge. L., 1968).

To date, psychological science has developed several approaches to revealing the phenomenon of communication, the methodological commonality of which is manifested in the fact that they all share a fundamental position on the issue of the unity of communication and activity. However, the nature of this unity is understood in different ways.

12 pp., 5711 words

Psychology correspondence course

… . manual for universities / A.N. Leontyev. — 2nd ed., erased. - M.: Smysl, 2005. - 346 p. 31.Martsinkovskaya, T.D. History of psychology: textbook...]. - St. Petersburg: Peter, 2003. - 269 p. 9.Verderber, R. Communication. Intensive course / R. Verderber, K. Verderber; [transl. from English I. Andreeva]. - 11th edition... - M.: NORMA, 2009. - 611 p. 5. Ilyin, E.P. Psychology of communication and interpersonal relations / E.P. Ilyin. - St. Petersburg: Peter, 2009 ...

  1. From the point of view of A.N. Leontyev1, communication should be considered as a certain aspect of activity, because it is present in every activity. The activity itself is a necessary condition for communication.
  2. The most detailed approach to communication as one of the types of human activity is developed and presented in many works. B.G. Ananyev2 considers communication as one of the main types of human activity, believing that it represents a kind of fusion of social and individual in the social existence of people.

A.A. Leontiev3 considers communication as an activity, as a special case of activity, as one of the types of activity, as an activity of communication, communicative activity.

Understanding communication as an activity, A.A. Leontyev identifies the following common features:

intentionality (the presence of a specific goal, independent or subordinate

How to communicate with impossible people

Difficult people require a special approach during conversation. If you need to contact an unpleasant person, you can minimize the receipt of negative emotions using 5 basic rules:

  1. You should not take your opponent’s criticism or advice that you haven’t asked for personally.
  2. If your interlocutor likes to interrupt, you should not allow him to do so. This requires politely explaining to the person that his arguments will not be heard until the speech is finished.
  3. If the interlocutor does not want to talk, but you need to get an answer from him, in this case the best communication is to briefly state the essence of the question.
  4. We should not forget about the ability to listen to your opponent. Thanks to an attentive attitude towards the interlocutor, respect for his words and thoughts will be visible.
  5. There is no need to teach a person to communicate if he does it somehow wrong. Each individual has his own way of speaking. Therefore, an evaluative conversation will only irritate.

Communication is the key to the whole world. Careful study of the operating instructions and proper use will make it easier to achieve your goals.

Social role and social status

Social status determines social, official, material status, and various merits. In the Russian tradition of business communication, gender differences are not emphasized, that is, women and men with the same social status enjoy the same advantages.

Over the long years of Soviet power, a tradition of so-called reverent appeal to superiors has developed. Ingratiation, sometimes even servility, was often observed on the part of subordinates and other people of lower status. When determining social status, the modern speech situation especially takes into account official position, but the attitude towards superiors is still different. When communicating, the personal achievements and merits of the recipient are also taken into account.

speech situation determines

Social role and social status do not always coincide. Often in the modern era of market relations, a situation arises when the partners are representatives of organizations that are in a hierarchy (such as a subsidiary and a parent company).

The social role is the most important criterion for determining the communicative expectations that the interlocutor develops. Thus, the expectations of subordinates from their boss are politeness, correctness, caring, respect, and sometimes patronage. Violations of standards of speech behavior include aggression and the desire to attribute one’s mistakes to the account of a subordinate. Unfortunately, it is worth noting that such blunders on the part of leaders still occur in our society.

lesson situation of speech communication

Situations of speech etiquette may be different, but communication with a subordinate “on an equal footing” is a prerequisite in order to create a friendly and cohesive team that can effectively exist in conditions of market competition.

Unlike social roles, communicative ones are changeable. Let's take an ordinary dialogue: the speech situation can change - the same person can be the addressee, addressee or observer.


Goals can be urgent and long-term. For example, in business communication, long-term goals are realized in plans for cooperation. It is possible to build constructive business relationships only on the basis of mutual positive emotions - sympathy, trust, respect, goodwill, etc. That is why various invitations to celebrations, congratulations, letters of gratitude, condolences, etc. are sent.

You can inform the recipient about the state of affairs (another type of goals) using calls, letters, faxes, price lists, catalogs, etc.

Rules, instructions, orders, orders, complaints, demands, requests in oral and written form exist with the purpose of influencing the addressee and inducing him to do something.

It often happens that the above goals are combined within one text (an example is a letter of request that begins with a message about the state of affairs and ends with a request).

There are a lot of different speech situations, but one can note their typical features that help to navigate the choice of speech means of communication to achieve the goal. Such features are fixed in the field of business communication in oral speech (work meeting, business negotiations, telephone communication, etc.) and written speech (business letter, contract, rules, license, etc.).

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