Behavioral disorders in preschool children. article on the topic

Every society has certain standards of mental health, law, culture and morality. Social norms often suppress the instincts and desires of the individual. But if you want others to understand and accept you, you need to somehow meet these standards. For example, when you see a beautiful flower bed in bloom and follow social norms, you inhale the aroma and admire the flowers instead of picking them and taking them with you. Naturally, when raising your child, you try to accustom him to the same way of acting. And yet, even among respectable parents, the behavior of children sometimes goes beyond the norms prescribed by society. Psychologists call this behavior deviant, asocial, inadequate, and so on. What is the phenomenon of children with behavioral problems and how to deal with it?

Key points

  • Misbehavior becomes a problem when it is frequent and unexpected, and leads to trouble at home, at school and with peers.
  • Behavioral disorders are generally divided into two categories: oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.
  • Behavioral disorders may be associated with family problems, stress, and poor ability to manage emotions and activity levels.
  • Contact your doctor if your child's behavior suddenly changes or if his behavior is more challenging than expected for his developmental stage.

Street and school

Children's behavior at school is often different from their behavior on the street or at home. Here, not only the framework set by the educational institution, but also the personality of the teacher plays a huge role. The more sympathetic the child is to the teacher, the more fair he considers him, the better he will behave.

Often it is at school age that people encounter aggressive behavior of a child. Here people are divided into two camps: the victims (“Well, do something with him!”) and the perpetrators (“What will I do with him, he won’t listen at all”).

Correction of children's behavior is the responsibility of psychologists or social educators. Parents should remember that aggression, as a rule, does not arise out of nowhere; it is a reflection of a lack of love.

An aggressive child, by his behavior, seems to make it clear to the adults around him that he needs additional support, support and attention.

What is conduct disorder in children?

Children and teenagers often get into trouble and become irritable or aggressive at times, especially during early adolescence. For example, a young child may have a tantrum, or a teenager may speak or argue with you in a loud voice at times.

Conduct disorder differs from typical developmental behavior because it occurs more frequently and causes problems in more than one situation.

For example, such behavior not only affects school and family life, but can also complicate friendships and other peer relationships.

There are two main types of conduct disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Your child may have symptoms of one of these disorders if:

  • they have frequent outbursts, often at unexpected times (for example, not just when the child is tired or hungry);
  • they find it difficult to follow rules and requests;
  • their behavior causes many problems at home and at school.

If you are concerned about your child or teen's behavior, consider whether the frequency, duration, and intensity of the behavior is different from what would be expected for their particular developmental stage.

Reasons for deviations

The reasons for deviant behavior in children are so diverse that it is difficult to single out one main and leading one. In most cases, the provoking factors are a whole range of problems, both biological in nature and physiological and mental. The specifics of the environment in which a child grows and develops also plays an important role in the possible manifestation of deviant forms of behavior in children.

Medical and biological factors include congenital, acquired during life and hereditary causes. Congenital factors are intrauterine injuries to the fetus during pregnancy, toxicosis in the mother, poisoning with chemicals, infectious and somatic diseases in the expectant mother, as well as the use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco products during pregnancy. Such reasons negatively affect the maturation and development of the fetal nervous system, which can subsequently lead to age-related crises and manifestations of deviant behavior.

Hereditary factors in the development of deviant behavior in children include genetic disorders, in particular, chromosome mutations and pathological metabolism, which can result in the development of pathologies of mental development, defects in the visual and auditory systems, as well as problems in the neuropsychic development of the child. Hereditary causes directly affect the child’s characteristics, his temperament, social adaptability, ability to adapt to living conditions and communicate with others.

Acquired causes are long-term diseases of neurological and somatic etiology, which result in delays in emotional, mental, speech development, and the child’s personality is formed with a pathological bias - he grows up aggressive, unstable and socially unadapted.

Signs of deviant forms of behavior in preschool children arise for the following reasons:

  1. Unfavorable family situation - the absence of one of the parents, an incomplete or conflict family. Deviations often develop in children growing up in families where parents drink, lead a parasitic lifestyle, and commit illegal acts. Often in such conditions, excessive severity is shown towards the child or, conversely, indifference and hidden neglect.
  2. Pedagogical errors in upbringing are the inability of parents to justify prohibitions and instill discipline, setting strict boundaries of behavior and violation of these same frameworks by the parents themselves, abuse of prohibitions. All this leads to conflicts and the emergence of deviant forms of behavior in children and adolescents.
  3. Psychological reasons - outbursts of anger, whims, demand for attention to oneself. This behavior is considered normal up to 5 years. If parents behave correctly in such situations and are able to suppress surges of aggression in the child, deviations in his future behavior may not develop.

As you can see, deviant children are the result not only of congenital and hereditary problems, but also of improper upbringing and dysfunctional family conditions.

What Causes Behavior Disorders?

Behavioral disorders can be caused by:

  • biological factors;
  • social and environmental factors;
  • psychological factors.

Biological factors

Some of the traits seen in behavioral disorders may run in families. Children with a family history of behavioral problems, learning difficulties, anxiety, depression or bipolar disorder may be more likely to experience behavioral problems.

Social and environmental factors

Children from families that experience high levels of stress on a regular basis may be more likely to show signs of conduct disorder. Some common family stressors may include:

  • financial difficulties;
  • exposure to domestic violence;
  • family breakdown;
  • harsh or inconsistent parenting;
  • Inconsistent supervision, for example due to parental mental health problems or different caregiving styles on the part of each parent.

Age and individual characteristics of preschool children

Age characteristics of young children from 2 to 3 years:

  • In the third year of life, children become more independent (“I am myself,” the image of the Self is formed, the crisis is often accompanied by a number of negative manifestations, and can last from several months to two years).
  • Objective activity continues to develop (mastering cultural ways of acting with various objects, developing correlative and instrumental actions).
  • Situational business communication between an adult and a child (understanding of speech continues to develop, the word is separated from the situation and acquires an independent meaning, the number of words understood increases).
  • Speech improves (by the age of three, children master basic grammatical structures, try to construct simple sentences, and use almost all parts of speech in conversations with adults. The active vocabulary reaches approximately 1000–1500 words, speech becomes the child’s means of communication with peers).
  • Initial forms of voluntary behavior (children develop a feeling of pride and shame, elements of self-awareness associated with identification with a name and gender begin to form.
  • New types of activities: playing, drawing, designing (game is procedural in nature, by the middle of the third year of life actions with substitute objects appear, the emergence of one’s own visual activity is due to the fact that the child is already able to formulate the intention to depict any object, a person is a “cephalopod” ").
  • Visual and effective thinking (the peculiarity is that problematic situations that arise in a child’s life are resolved through real action with objects).

Age characteristics of children of primary preschool age from 3 to 4 years:

  • The child gradually leaves the family circle.
  • Communication becomes non-situational.
  • The game becomes the leading type of activity (the main feature of the game is convention, the main content is actions with toys and substitute objects, the duration of the game is short, simple, undeveloped plots, one or two roles, games with rules begin to form).
  • Visual activity depends on ideas about the subject (lack of details or more detailed ones, use of color, modeling of simple objects, simplest forms of appliqué).
  • Constructive activity is limited to the construction of simple buildings according to a model or design (mastering sensory standards).
  • Memory and attention develop (by the end of the year, children can remember significant passages from their favorite works).
  • Visual and effective thinking continues to develop (they are able to establish some hidden connections and relationships between objects).
  • The relationships between children are determined by norms and rules (they are clearly manifested in play activities, while they are playing nearby, stable selective relationships and conflicts mainly over toys can be observed).
  • Behavior is still situational (conscious control of behavior is just beginning to take shape).
  • Self-esteem begins to develop (they are largely guided by the teacher’s assessment).
  • Gender identification (the nature of the toys chosen) continues to develop.

Age characteristics of children of middle preschool age from 4 to 5 years:

  • Role-playing interactions appear in play activities (during the game, roles can change, play actions are performed not for their own sake, but for the sake of the meaning of the game, the separation of play and real interactions of children).
  • Visual activity is undergoing significant development (the technical side of visual activity is being improved - drawing basic geometric shapes, cutting with scissors, gluing an image onto paper, object drawing and detailed drawing, a person - torso, eyes, mouth, nose, hair, sometimes clothes and details).
  • Design becomes more complicated (buildings include 5-6 parts, design according to your own plans, planning a sequence of actions).
  • The motor sphere is characterized by positive changes in fine and gross motor skills (dexterity and coordination of movements develop).
  • The volume of memory increases, voluntary memorization begins to develop (they remember up to 7-8 objects, remember the instructions of adults, can learn a short poem).
  • Imaginative thinking begins to develop (children are able to use simple schematized images to solve simple problems, anticipation develops - based on the spatial arrangement of objects they can tell what will happen as a result of their interaction).
  • The imagination continues to develop (they can independently come up with a short fairy tale on a given topic.
  • Stability of attention increases (concentrated activity for 15–20 minutes).
  • Speech becomes the subject of children’s activity (the rhythmic structure of speech, rhyme are of interest, the grammatical side of speech develops - word creation, when communicating with an adult, speech becomes extra-situational, when communicating with an adult leader, a cognitive motive becomes).
  • An age-related phenomenon is increased sensitivity.
  • Leaders stand out, competitiveness and competitiveness appear (the image of the Self is detailed).

Age characteristics of children of senior preschool age from 5 to 6 years:

  • Development of the game (distribution of roles before the start of the game, building one’s behavior in the game, adhering to the role, mastering social relationships, some roles are more attractive than others - conflicts may arise).
  • Visual activity develops (the age of the most active drawing, drawings acquire a plot character, plots are repeated many times, a person is more detailed and proportional).
  • In design, one masters a generalized method of examining a sample; constructive activity can be carried out on the basis of a diagram, according to a plan, according to a condition (design from various types of construction sets, from paper, from natural materials).
  • Figurative thinking continues to develop (generalizations continue to improve, which is the basis of verbal-logical thinking).
  • Imagination develops (writing fairly original and consistently unfolding stories; special work is required to activate the imagination.
  • Stability, distribution, and switching of attention develop.
  • Speech improves (sound side - hissing, whistling, sonorant sounds, phonemic hearing develops, intonation expressiveness develops, grammatical structure improves, active word creation, coherent speech develops).

Behavioral disorders co-occurring with other conditions

Other conditions that often occur alongside behavioral disorders include:

  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD);
  • anxiety;
  • depression;
  • affective insanity;
  • substance use disorders.

When to seek help from a child psychologist?

Talk to a social worker at your child or young person's school about their behavior if:

  • you notice sudden or unexpected changes in behavior (increased irritability or aggression for no reason);
  • your child's behavior is more impulsive than expected, depending on his stage of development;
  • Your child's behavior continually interferes with their ability to succeed in school or maintain positive relationships at home and in the community.

Contact your doctor if you would like to request a referral to a mental health professional, such as an educational psychologist.

Suicidal behavior in children

In the most tragic cases, deviations in the child’s behavior take an extreme form - suicide. Psychologists believe that suicidal behavior in children is associated with an ambivalent attitude towards death - the child perceives death as a way of manipulation, for example, imagining how the mother will be upset, but does not realize the irreversibility of the consequences.

Typically, suicidal behavior in children is aimed at attracting attention; it is preceded by depression, boredom, loneliness, isolation, and aggression towards the environment. Sometimes suicidal behavior takes a hidden form when a child chooses extreme sports, joins dangerous groups, or takes drugs.

The reasons for suicidal behavior in children include conflicts with parents, peers, immediate environment, and misunderstanding at school. At the same time, children most often refuse the help of adults.

What are the main symptoms of behavioral disorder?

Symptoms depend on the type of conduct disorder the child or adolescent is experiencing:

  • oppositional defiant disorder (ODD);
  • conduct disorder (CD).

Signs of oppositional defiant disorder

Behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder lead to struggles at school, at home and in the community with the child or adolescent or with the people with whom they interact.

ODD has a range of symptoms in the following three main categories:

  • anger or irritability;
  • argumentative or defiant behavior;
  • malevolence.

A child or adolescent with ODD must have three symptoms from this category and target them to at least one person who is not a sibling.

Anger or irritability

A teenager with ODD may, for example:

  • lose your temper often;
  • be often touchy or easily irritated;
  • often feel angry and offended.

Argumentative or challenging behavior

A child or adolescent with ODD:

  • frequently argues with authority figures such as teachers, parents, or other adults;
  • refuses to follow the rules or fulfill the requests of parents or teachers;
  • often deliberately irritate others;
  • often blames others for his mistakes or bad behavior.


A child or teen with ODD may show anger at least twice in the past six months.

For example, if children feel betrayed or hurt, their actions may be aimed at making themselves feel better at the expense of the other person rather than correcting negative behavior.

Signs of conduct disorder

Conduct disorder is a pattern of behavioral and emotional problems that goes beyond the normal behavior of a child or adolescent.

A child with conduct disorder usually shows little or no concern for the feelings of others. Many also do not understand or feel guilty about how their actions affect others.

Symptoms associated with conduct disorder fall into four categories:

  • aggression towards people and animals;
  • causing material damage;
  • deception;
  • deliberately break the rules.

Antisocial behavior of children

Speaking about antisocial behavior in children, psychologists note that it arises as a result of a violation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. Children with antisocial behavior are divided into four groups:

  • First group. It includes children whose antisocial behavior is associated with deviations in the development of the emotional-volitional sphere and individual characteristics, up to psychopathy;
  • Second group. These are children whose antisocial behavior is associated with incorrect forms of influence. For example, when adults impose strict disciplinary requirements on a child without taking into account his age, emotional state, or experiences. Children of this group do not need behavior correction; on the contrary, it is adults who must reconsider their attitude to their actions in the situation;
  • Third group. It includes children with serious gaps in moral and ethical education. In other words, these are neglected children whose antisocial behavior is associated with the connivance of adults. Such children do not consciously violate social norms because they are simply not familiar with them;

  • Fourth group. These are difficult-to-educate teenagers; the antisocial behavior of children in this group is associated with a distortion of moral ideas and personality traits. Such children understand that their behavior is contrary to social norms, but they do not want to change it and refuse any interference in their lives, reacting to critical feedback with indifference, defiant behavior and disagreeing with the negative assessment of others. This is the most difficult group to educate, since such children are confident that they are right.

How are behavioral disorders diagnosed?

Behavioral disorders are diagnosed through a thorough evaluation by an experienced mental health professional, usually a psychiatrist or psychologist.

The professional will talk to you, the child or teen, and sometimes your child's school teachers. Doctors will take into account medical history and family circumstances, and consider all factors that may affect the child's behavior, such as:

  • mental health problems;
  • learning difficulties;
  • family stress factor.

Gathering this information may require several appointments with a psychiatrist or psychologist. Once they conduct the assessment, doctors will decide whether the child's behavior meets the diagnostic criteria for a specific behavioral disorder. They may diagnose a conduct disorder if your child's challenging behavior persists after other factors have been addressed.

What can your child's doctor do about conduct disorder?

Your child's doctor can help determine whether your child's behavior is normal for his developmental stage, whether he is reacting to other stressors in his life, or whether his behavior is indicative of a conduct disorder.

If requested, your child's doctor can help you find the most appropriate treatment for your child or teen.

A thorough evaluation by a psychiatrist will help provide an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan for your child or adolescent.

Consultation “Characteristics of behavioral and activity disorders in children”

Tatiana Fokina

Consultation “Characteristics of behavioral and activity disorders in children”


Behavioral disorders in children can manifest themselves in disobedience, inappropriate reactions to comments, and a decrease in educational performance; as a rule, parents and educators first notice these changes.

If loved ones cannot cope with the child, then they turn to specialists (psychologists, psychotherapists)


Behavioral disorders in children may be caused by:

• Peculiarities of upbringing (social and pedagogical neglect)


• Innate personal ( characterological )

features and the associated development of
character accentuations and psychopathy , as a rule, expressed in deviant behavior .
• Neurotic disorders (tics, enuresis, phobias, i.e. obsessive fears, etc.)

after suffering perinatal encephalopathies or minimal brain dysfunction, or after suffering psychological stress
(for example: the loss of a loved one, especially a parent)

• Severe endogenous mental diseases, i.e. diseases of the central nervous system associated with metabolic disorders

Although some of these options may appear simultaneously, or may be similar to each other, this is where specialist consultation in order to recognize the disorder and if there is a need to prescribe treatment.

1. Concept and features of behavioral and activity disorders in children

Behavior is the reactions and actions of humans and animals that express their relationship with the external environment. The first significant works on conditioned behavior belong to I. P. Pavlova.

As a result of a series of studies, he came to the conclusion that the autonomous functions of animals, for example, salivation, can be caused not by food, but by other stimuli (light)

Thus, the scientist could not only observe and predict, but also cause the required behavior of animals .
Pavlov's research prompted psychologist B.F. Skinner to conduct laboratory experiments with animals whose habitat is limited to certain conditions, which makes it possible to obtain highly reproducible results.

Skinner concluded that laws of behavior that apply to all members of a species can be detected and individual differences controllable.

According to Skinner, behavior, for all its complexity and variability, is precisely what is observed and studied. behavior that is that part of the functioning of the organism that interacts with the outside world and influences it.

behavior is one of the important areas of psychological and sociological research.

Skinner distinguishes the following types of behavior : reactive - reflex behavior , it is easily instilled and easily eliminated, it is controlled by what precedes it. And operational behavior is controlled by those events that follow behavior , i.e. consequences. Skinner calls these consequences reinforcements.

In psychology, the concept of " behavior "

, most often, is defined as an externally observable system of actions and actions of people, in which a person’s internal motivations are realized.

A distinction is made between verbal behavior - a system of judgments , statements and evidence, and non-verbal behavior , i.e. a system of practical actions.

S. L. Rubinstein distinguished between instinctive, rational behavior and skills . A. Adler believed that behavior is determined by ideas about the world, since human feelings do not perceive real facts, but receive their subjective images.

For example, if a person experiences a feeling of fear, he sees danger where there may not be any. Adler emphasized that human behavior is social , since personality develops and is formed in a social environment. In addition, behavior is determined by his life goals, which provide direction for his activities . Habits and behavioral must be considered in the context of an individual’s life goal, the formation of which begins in childhood. A. Adler identifies three main tasks: work, friendship, love.

Deviant (deviant)
behavior is usually called social behavior that does not correspond to the established norms in a given society.
The famous sociologist I. S. Kon clarifies the definition of deviant behavior , considering it as a system of actions that deviate from the generally accepted or implied norm, be it the norms of mental health, law, culture and morality. In accordance with the concept of adaptive behavior, any deviation leads to adaptation disorders (mental, socio-psychological, environmental)


Deviant behavior is divided into two broad categories.

Firstly, this is behavior deviating from the norms of mental health, implying the presence of overt or hidden psychopathology (pathological)


Secondly, this is antisocial behavior that violates some social , cultural and especially legal norms. When such actions are minor, they are called misdemeanors , and when they are serious and punishable by criminal law, they are called crimes. Accordingly, they speak of delinquent (illegal)

and criminal
(criminal) behavior .
S. A. Belicheva classifies social deviations in deviant behavior as follows :

Social deviations:

• selfish orientation: offenses , misdemeanors associated with the desire to obtain material, monetary, property benefits (theft, theft, speculation, patronage, fraud, etc.)


•aggressive orientation: actions directed against the individual (insult, hooliganism, beatings, murders, rape)


•socially passive type: the desire to leave an active lifestyle, evade civic responsibilities, reluctance to solve personal and social problems (avoidance from work, school, vagrancy, alcoholism, drug addiction, substance abuse, suicide).

Thus, antisocial behavior , which differs in both content and target orientation, can manifest itself in various social deviations: from violations of moral norms to delinquencies and crimes .

Asocial manifestations are expressed not only in the external behavioral side , but also in the deformation of the internal regulation of behavior : social moral orientations and ideas.

Deviations in the behavior of children and adolescents are understood as those characteristics and their manifestations that not only attract attention, but also alarm educators (parents, teachers, the public)


These behavioral features not only indicate deviations from generally accepted norms and requirements, but also carry the beginnings and origins of future offenses, violations of moral , social, legal norms, legal requirements, and represent a potential threat to the subject of behavior , the development of his personality, and the people around him , to society as a whole.

Individual actions are not significant in themselves, but only in connection with what personality characteristics and trends in their development are hidden behind them.

Consequently, by giving the actions and behavior of a child or teenager one or another direction, content, significance, we thereby exert an arbitrary, purposeful influence on the development of these processes or mechanisms that underlie the moral and other personal properties and qualities of the child.

Or, conversely, by preventing certain actions or behavior , we create an obstacle and delay the development of the corresponding properties and qualities of the personality of a child or teenager.

Thus, deviant behavior of children and adolescents , on the one hand, can be considered as a symptom, signal, sign of origin and development (trend)

corresponding characteristics of the individual, on the other hand, act as a conductor of educational influence on the development of the individual, a means of its formation or a targeted influence on its formation
(i.e., an educational means)

Considering behavior as a phenomenon that indicates a particular state of the individual, the tendency of its development, we must remember that the same outwardly similar behavioral features can indicate different processes occurring in the individual’s psyche, and vice versa.

Therefore, when qualifying one or another feature behavior as a deviation, we must take into account the conditions, stability, frequency of its manifestation, personality traits, character , age of the student and much more. And only after this make one judgment or another, or even more so, determine the measure of influence.

In the behavior and development of preschool behavioral disorders (aggression, hot temper, passivity, hyperactivity, developmental delays and various forms of childhood nervousness (neuropathy, neuroses, fears)


Complications of a child’s mental and personal development are usually caused by two factors:

1) mistakes in education or

2) a certain immaturity, minimal damage to the nervous system.

Often both of these factors act simultaneously, since adults often underestimate or ignore (and sometimes even do not know)

those features of the child’s nervous system that underlie
behavioral , and try to “correct”
the child with various inadequate educational influences.

It is very important, therefore, to be able to identify the true reasons for a child’s behavior that worries parents and educators, and to outline appropriate ways of corrective work with him.

To do this, it is necessary to clearly understand the symptoms of the above-mentioned disorders of the mental development of children , knowledge of which will allow the teacher, together with a psychologist, not only to correctly organize work with the child, but also to determine whether certain complications are developing into painful forms that require qualified medical care.

Corrective work with the child should begin as early as possible. Timeliness of psychological assistance is the main condition for its success and effectiveness.

The multiplicity of variations of disorders in humans makes it difficult to create a universal classification of them. A disorder or lack of development can occur suddenly after an accident or illness, or it can develop and intensify over a long period of time, for example, due to exposure to unfavorable environmental factors or as a result of a long-term chronic disease.

A deficiency or violation can be eliminated (in whole or in part)

medical and
pedagogical means or decrease in its manifestation.

(restriction, obstacle)) is now accepted as a universal, collective term used in a broad sense, denoting a deficiency in the physical or mental sphere of a person.


The concept of limitation is considered from different points of view and, accordingly, is designated differently in different professional fields related to a person with developmental disabilities : in medicine, sociology, the field of social law, pedagogy, psychology. In accordance with different professional approaches to the subject and different reasons for taxonomy, different classifications exist.

The most common reasons are the following: causes of violations ; types of violations with subsequent specification of their nature ; consequences of violations that affect later life.

The latest pedagogical classification is based on the nature of the special educational needs of persons with disabilities and the degree of disability.

So, in pedagogy, in accordance with the historically established system of educational institutions for children with developmental disabilities, as well as in accordance with the system of subject areas of special pedagogy, the classification is traditionally based on the nature of the violation , the deficiency.

Accordingly, the following categories of persons with disabilities are distinguished:

• deaf;

• hearing impaired;

• late-deafened;

• blind people;

• visually impaired;

• persons with impaired musculoskeletal system functions;

• persons with disorders of the emotional-volitional sphere;

• persons with intellectual disabilities ;

• children with mental retardation (learning difficulties)


• persons with severe speech impairments ;

• persons with complex developmental disabilities.

There is also a more generalized classification, which is based on the grouping of the above categories of disorders in accordance with the localization of the disorder in a particular system of the body:

• bodily (somatic)
disorders (musculoskeletal system, chronic diseases)
sensory impairment (hearing, vision)

disorders of brain activity (mental retardation, movement disorders , mental and speech disorders ).

This classification is significant for pedagogy only as a generalized systemic organization of the entire set of developmental disorders . For the medical field, this classification is more significant; in medicine it has a more finely differentiated classification.

In the field of social protection and social and labor law, classification based on the reasons for the occurrence of a violation or deficiency is significant.

This is due to the peculiarities of providing material and other social assistance, compensation payments, benefits, etc.:

• congenital developmental disorder ;

• accident, natural disaster;

• work injury;

• occupational disease leading to disability;

• traffic accident;

• participation in hostilities;

• environmental crimes;

• disease;

• other reasons.

Classification according to the causes of violations is also important for pedagogy, since knowledge of the origin of a particular developmental deficiency, including its biological or social conditionality, as well as the time and characteristics of its occurrence, provides the teacher with the necessary initial data for planning an individual program of special pedagogical assistance.

Significant for the social sphere and for pedagogy is the classification according to the consequences of deficiencies that affect a person’s future life - his need for special education, rehabilitation (medical, psychological, social, professional, care, provision of special technical means, etc. English experts proposed a cross-section a classification that indicates not only the impaired areas of the human body and functions, but also the degree of their damage.

This allows not only to more subtly differentiate different categories of persons with disabilities, but also, on the basis of this classification, to more accurately determine the nature and scope of the special educational and social needs of each individual person with developmental problems.

Based on this classification, it is possible with a fairly high degree of probability to determine the socially and educationally significant special needs of a person with disabilities and, accordingly, the directions of correctional and educational activities : orientation in the surrounding physical and social environment, physical independence, mobility, the possibility of various types activities , employment opportunities, the possibility of social integration and socio-economic independence.

Each subject area of ​​special pedagogy has its own private classifications.

2. Classification of various behavioral and activity disorders in children

violation behavior accentuation character

The specifics of the modern socio-economic situation, its complexity and tension create conditions in which a child is quite often exposed to harmful influences that cause persistent deviations in his development.

These deviations, relating to both physical and mental spheres, can lead to disruption of the child’s behavior in everyday life.

Experts conventionally distinguish three types of “wrong”
behavior .
Let's briefly look at each of them.

1. Deviant behavior ( “deviation”

) is a stereotype
of behavioral response that is associated with violations of certain age-related social norms and rules of behavior characteristic of microsocial relationships (family, school)
and small age-sex social groups, which leads to social maladjustment.
Examples of behavior : disrupting classes, absenteeism.
One of the most important factors determining the formation and development of “difficult”
behavior in adolescents is the actual period of sexual development (puberty)
Due to the dynamics of the anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics of a teenager, it is during this period that the prerequisites for the development of deviant behavior . At this time, adolescents are characterized by behavioral reactions of grouping, opposition, etc., which serve as the basis for “difficult” behavior .
2. Delinquent behavior ( offence

) - a stereotype
of behavioral response associated with violations of legal norms that do not entail criminal liability due to their limited social danger or the fact that the delinquent has not reached the age of criminal responsibility. Examples of behavior : petty hooliganism, fights without causing serious bodily harm.
3. Criminal behavior ( "crime"

) – actions subject to criminal punishment under articles of the Criminal Code, subject to reaching the age of criminal responsibility.

Criminal behavior , as a rule, is preceded by temporary periods during which various forms of deviant and delinquent behavior . Example of conduct : causing grievous bodily harm.

Note that in almost every kindergarten group there are children who behave inappropriately. By adolescence, the number of “difficult”
children increases 3–5 times. Unfortunately, “difficult”
children produce similar

violators 3 times more actively than obedient children.
According to the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, over the past 5 years, the number of crimes related to the involvement of teenagers in criminal activity has increased by 165.5%.
The main factors leading to the formation and development “difficult”
behavior in a child include: the parental family factor and biological factors. that has the greatest influence on the development of deviant forms of behavior is the parental family, i.e., the maladjusted, disharmonious family in which the child grows up.
According to the observations of specialists. Second place among the causes and factors leading to the formation and development of “difficult behavior

in a child, are occupied by biological factors: pre-, intra- and postnatal hazards (toxicosis, pathology of childbirth, fetal hypoxia, cesarean section, etc., mental illness, genetic predispositions.

Note that in 95% of cases, hyperactive children had early organic brain damage, leading to brain exhaustion, decreased attention, restlessness, etc.

In many of the “difficult”
children, the initial , basic disorders are a delay in the rate of psychomotor development, speech, emotional and cognitive development, deep socio-pedagogical neglect in combination with such systemic disorders as enuresis, tics, stuttering. A fairly high percentage of “difficult” children suffer from depressive disorders.
All this indicates early cerebral-organic (brain)

deficiency, the incidence of which in
children with deviant forms of behavior is 95% .

Most children benefit from a clear system of rules that define the boundaries of acceptable behavior and acceptable activities . Each family has its own standards of behavior and language ; Behavior that is not acceptable in one family is completely acceptable in another.

As parents, you must be aware of why you set a particular rule - whether for reasons of safety or for reasons of generally accepted norms of behavior .

And you must make the right choice between the benefits of strictly adhering to standards of behavior and the possibility of periodic clashes with children in enforcing these rules.

Try to give your child the opportunity to make decisions freely within your rules, otherwise you risk undermining your child's initiative and self-confidence or causing disobedience.

Behavioral disorders include a group of disorders characterized by the presence of defiant , aggressive or dissocial behavior .

Depending on the age of the child, this may be hooliganism or excessive pugnacity, rude or cruel behavior , deceit, outbursts of aggression and anger, provocative behavior and disobedience .

All types of behavioral disorders can be divided into unsocialized and socialized forms.

Unsocialized behavioral disorders are pathological forms, their main diagnostic criteria include pathocharacterological syndrome , deviant behavior in microsocial groups, pathological transformation of personality and the presence of neurotic disorders.


For children diagnosed with a behavioral disorder, proper treatment at the right time can help prevent them from "outgrowing" the disorder and being more likely to exhibit bad behavior in adulthood.

Often, for the treatment of behavioral disorders, you can contact a pediatrician and child psychologist.

Treatment for behavioral disorders focuses primarily on:

  • child behavior therapy;
  • drug treatment.

Behavioral therapy

There are two main types of behavioral treatment: parenting training and psychotherapy.

Parenting training has been shown to work very well for children with behavioral disorders. Training is most effective in early childhood or adolescence, but it is never too late to change the way you deal with your child or teenager's behavior.

Individual therapy or family therapy may also be effective in treating behavioral disorders. Therapy can help change family relationships and support parents and children or teens by identifying the causes of misbehavior and talking about ways to deal with them.

Six childhood crises - steps on the path to adulthood

Psychologists identify only six main childhood crises, characterized by a significant deterioration in children’s behavior. Despite the indicated age, all crises are extremely conditional and can deviate by several months or even years from the indicated figures.

  • Newborn crisis. The first few months are some of the most difficult in the life of a little person who is transitioning from intrauterine to independent existence.
  • Crisis of one year. The baby grew up and learned to walk. For the first time, he begins to separate himself from his mother and listen to his desires. At this age, children respond with extreme negativity to any prohibitions from an adult.
  • Crisis of three years. One of the most difficult periods in the life of a little person. It manifests itself as extreme negativism, protest against the rules of adults, independence, obstinacy and stubbornness.
  • Crisis of seven years. The child loses his childish spontaneity and naivety and strives to receive external evaluation and social contacts. Seven-year-olds are characterized by pretentiousness and mannerisms, and outbursts of inexplicable aggression.
  • Teenage crisis. It usually begins around the age of 13 and is associated with hormonal changes occurring in the child’s body. Adolescents are characterized by emotional instability, a desire for emancipation and conflicts with surrounding adults.
  • The crisis of adolescence overtakes children at the age of 17-18 years, when hormonal storms are already behind them. A person strives to completely separate from his parents, but at the same time experiences increased anxiety and nervousness, and often reacts aggressively to any help or advice.

How to help your child at home?

A healthy parent-child relationship is the starting point for overcoming any challenging behavior. Key features of a healthy relationship include the following:

  • maintaining positive educational relationships with the child;
  • ensuring consistent rules and expectations;
  • know where, how and with whom your child likes to spend time.

It is important that these traits are firmly established before anything is done to address any behavior problems.

What can I do if my child continues to misbehave when I suggest calm down and set clear rules?

If your child continues to show signs of a possible behavioral disorder, you can try several behavior improvement strategies to help cope.

  • Explain rules and expectations . Explain the rules simply and directly so that your child or teen fully understands what you expect of them.
  • Apply rules and expectations consistently . Children and teenagers are experts at finding inconsistencies. Make sure all caregivers and teachers who have regular contact with your child follow the same plan.
  • Be clear about the values ​​and expectations that are important to you . Have clear boundaries between behavior that you can temporarily “turn a blind eye to” and behavior that you will not tolerate. For example, it is sometimes okay to temporarily ignore bad behavior as long as it is not harmful, dangerous, or contrary to family values.
  • Understand your child's point of view . You can often solve difficult problems by listening carefully to your child's views and calmly talking to him about some rules and expectations.
  • Praise your child when he behaves well . Notice a moment of good behavior and praise your child. Children like encouragement; it will highlight their success.
  • Try to avoid power struggles . Instead of engaging in a power struggle, talk about the consequences of your child's positive or negative decision. For example, you can tell your child that he won't be able to see his friends after dinner if he doesn't do his homework.

If your child's behavior does not improve with these methods at home, contact your doctor to evaluate your child. Your doctor may refer you for specialized treatment, such as parenting classes, or recommend therapy or medications for your child or teenager.

Common forms of deviant behavior among adolescents

The range of deviant behavior is large. All of these forms of delinquency can occur in all age groups, but are especially common during adolescence.


Protest behavior of adolescents is a refusal to communicate, attend school, play together when separated from their usual environment.

This can be observed in infantile adolescents. A psychologically difficult situation arises, and he cannot cope with it. What kind of protest there will be depends on personal characteristics. Easily excitable, stubborn teenagers can express their protest through rudeness and aggression.

Many scientists believe that the cause of protest behavior in adolescents is problems in the family. If parents let the upbringing process take its course, create a conflict situation, do not control the child, social control also weakens - deviations in actions and deeds appear, the individual becomes incapable of self-restraint.

Weakened “child-family” and “child-school” connections cause the child to become closer to peer groups focused on deviant behavior.

One of the reasons may be the economic situation in the country where there is a stratification of society. Many cannot satisfy their needs (get a prestigious education, live with dignity). Value orientations also begin to change.


Imitation is the desire to imitate someone.

In childhood, a child imitates adults. Teenagers also very often choose a super hero for themselves and try to imitate him in everything. It's good if this superhero is positive, but what if not?

But big problems await parents when a teenager chooses an adult with negative tendencies as his idol. And not only children from a dysfunctional family can imitate such an adult. A teenager is very flattered that his adult idol treats him as an equal. Over time, such an idol may begin to persuade a teenager to engage in various illegal actions. He does not yet know what punishment he can expect, and is not afraid of the consequences for violation. And even if your stay in such a group is not long, it will still leave a certain imprint. A previously obedient child may suddenly begin to disobey his parents and stop attending school. There he becomes uninterested, because now he has begun a new adult life.

Compensatory and overcompensatory

This behavior is usually observed in teenagers who want to compensate for their weakness in some area.

For example, he tries to compensate for his failures in school disciplines by becoming a leader. A teenager who was bullied by the whole class attends training in some section and subsequently tries to “restore justice” with the help of his fists. All this causes a negative attitude towards him from the school, parent committee, offended parents, etc.


This is the desire of adolescents to free themselves from the control of adults, the desire for independence, the desire to do things contrary, a negative attitude towards criticism addressed to them.

You should know that excessive guardianship, nagging at little things, and constant control lead to emancipatory behavior. It is most often observed in young people with a quickly excitable psyche. They have a desire to leave the walls of their home and move to live separately, or they develop a tendency towards vagrancy.


The grouping reaction is similar to imitative behavior, but there is no leader - an adult. Usually it becomes someone from the group if he is older than his peers, has experience in drinking alcohol or has a criminal past.

Members of the group most often begin to engage in physical training. Such “gangs” can also commit illegal acts. The group can be single-sex, but girls can also be involved. A group of minors united by common interests and hobbies may also arise. But more often than not, teenagers are more susceptible to bad influence.


The behavior of adolescents is called delinquent when they regularly commit minor offenses and acts that are not subject to criminal liability.

This could be petty hooliganism or fraud, domestic “theft”, causing actions in public places, etc. As a rule, teenagers commit such offenses out of mischief, bravado in front of peers and curiosity. The predominant motive for delinquent behavior of minors is the desire to assert themselves, which is often realized through violence.


The reason for a child leaving home can be motivated or unmotivated.

Motivated care arises for obvious reasons. This is the reaction of completely adequate children to psychological trauma, conflict, and a dysfunctional family situation.

There is also misunderstanding between parents and children. Many parents simply do not want to see changes in their child or understand them. They strive to subjugate them to their will. This can lead to changes in the child’s psyche, in his actions and behavior. Teenagers lose control of themselves. This leads to conflicts.

Unmotivated vagrancy occurs much less frequently. In only 36% of cases. The children themselves cannot explain why they left home. Such leaving home can occur impulsively and become an irresistible attraction.

Conventionally, all teenagers prone to vagrancy can be divided into 3 groups:

  • Group 1 – they have been on the street for less than a month and do not lose hope of returning to their family.
  • Group 2 – wandering for more than a month and up to a year. Have acquired negative experiences (alcohol, drug addiction, sexual relations).
  • Group 3 – those who have been wandering for more than a year. They already have illegal experience.


Suicide is an attempt to commit suicide or intentionally taking one's own life.

Suicide attempts can most often be observed during economic crises. The cause of suicide in adolescence can be: conflicts with parents, problems at school, a crisis in relationships with friends, drug or alcohol use, rejected love. By committing suicide, a teenager wants to influence others.

Teenage suicide attempts can be explained by a lack of life experience, loss or failure to acquire life guidelines.

Preventive work is needed here:

  • revival of morality and spirituality,
  • timely stress relief,
  • reorientation of values.

Early sexual

Recently, it has been observed that minors are beginning to be sexually active very early. This raises some concerns. If a teenager has an easily vulnerable psyche, and he encounters “rough sex,” this can cause him moral trauma.

Adolescents with hyperthymic personality traits are prone to early sexual activity. Their violations are observed in connection with the restriction of freedom. They are complacent, conflict situations cause them to react with protest. They are characterized by a grouping reaction. For such teenagers, the line between what is permitted and what is not permitted is blurred.

All the problems that arise in a teenager cannot be solved at once. This requires time and patience. We need to learn to love each other and be able to negotiate. Resolving problems depends on whether the adult knows how to solve them. If a way out of the current situation is found, this is half the success.

Deviant behavior can and should be corrected in a timely manner. Parents should carefully monitor their child, pay attention to changes in character, encourage their children to communicate, and try to become a friend and advisor.

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