Objective indicators of self-control and subjective


Control can be internal - directed at oneself, or external - regulating the activities of others. When control mechanisms are aimed at analyzing and regulating one’s “I”, this process is called the discipline of self-control.

It is one of the indispensable factors of a person’s self-awareness and is a condition for adequate perception of the internal and surrounding world.

The following types of self-control are distinguished:

  • temporal;
  • spatial;
  • arbitrary.

The temporary type is divided into preceding, current and effective subtypes, combining a preliminary assessment of the process, control of the action itself and analysis of the results of the action.

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Spatial self-control regulates the difference between perceptual modal channels. It is divided into auditory, tactile and visual.

The type of self-control of an arbitrary type regulates variables that are not expressed by a constant: emotions, psyche, thinking.

The importance of self-control in human life

When people cannot control their desires and actions, it is comparable to turning off the mind to a greater or lesser extent. The subject is unable to think rationally or give a sober assessment of his actions.

Control over emotions allows you to perceive life sensibly in all its branches. This skill will help you avoid unnecessary aggression in family matters or among colleagues.

Mastering the self-control technique is based on practicing and strictly following the assigned schedule. The ability to live according to a routine has a positive effect on self-improvement.

The primary foundations of a future character are laid in childhood. The behavior of the parents will become an example for the child. When adults know how to be restrained in dialogue and find compromises, children copy the reaction and in similar cases behave similarly.

When a person knows how to restrain emotions, this serves as a help in difficult life situations, helps to gather strength and set certain boundaries for oneself to achieve a goal.

The ability to restrain yourself is especially important in the following cases:

  • Force Majeure. When an extreme situation arises, people who control themselves are more likely to leave it with dignity, and not do stupid things, guided by impulsiveness.
  • Social activity. The ability to choose words and restrain emotions, to find a compromise in any situation is a very useful trait when restraint and diplomacy are required.
  • Life If one of the participants in a quarrel knows how to control himself, the conflict is nipped in the bud.
  • Sports activities. Sports are fraught with restrictions: daily routine, training time, special nutrition. Every athlete must control himself in order to achieve success.

It is important to understand your own financial capabilities and, if necessary, limit your desires.

Self-control, its main methods, indicators, criteria and assessments, self-control diary

Self-control, its main methods, indicators, criteria and assessments, self-control diary

When engaging in regular exercise and sports, it is very important to systematically monitor your well-being and general health. The state of health after physical exercise should be cheerful, the mood should be good, the practitioner should not feel a headache, fatigue or a feeling of overwork. If you experience severe discomfort, you should stop exercising and seek advice from specialists.

The loads used must correspond to physical fitness and age.

If your health, sleep, or appetite deteriorate, you need to reduce your exercise, and if the problems persist, consult a doctor.

The self-monitoring diary is used to record independent physical education and sports activities, as well as to record anthropometric changes, indicators, functional tests and control tests of physical fitness, and monitor the implementation of the weekly motor regimen.

Regular keeping of a diary makes it possible to determine the effectiveness of classes, means and methods, optimal planning of the amount and intensity of physical activity and rest in a separate lesson.

The diary should also note cases of violation of the regime and how they affect classes and overall performance. Objective indicators of self-control include: monitoring heart rate (pulse), blood pressure, respiration, vital capacity of the lungs, weight, muscle strength, and sports results.

It is generally accepted that a reliable indicator of fitness is the pulse.

The heart rate response to physical activity can be assessed by comparing heart rate data at rest (before exercise) and after exercise, i.e. determine the percentage of heart rate increase. The resting pulse rate is taken as 100%, the difference in frequency before and after the load is X. For example, the pulse before the start of the load was 12 beats in 10 seconds, and after it was 20 beats. After some simple calculations, we find out that the heart rate has increased by 67%.

But it’s not just the pulse that you should pay attention to. It is advisable, if possible, to also measure blood pressure before and after exercise. At the beginning of the loads, the maximum pressure increases, then stabilizes at a certain level. After stopping work (the first 10-15 minutes), it decreases below the initial level, and then returns to its initial state. The minimum pressure does not change during light or moderate loads, but during intense, heavy work it increases slightly.

It is known that the values ​​of pulse and minimum blood pressure are normally numerically the same. Kerdo proposed calculating the index using the formula


where D is the minimum pressure, and P is the pulse.

In healthy people this index is close to one. When the nervous regulation of the cardiovascular system is disrupted, it becomes larger or smaller than one.

It is also very important to assess respiratory function. It must be remembered that when performing physical activity, oxygen consumption by working muscles and the brain increases sharply, and therefore the function of the respiratory organs increases. By breathing frequency you can judge the amount of physical activity. Normally, the respiratory rate of an adult is 16-18 times per minute. An important indicator of respiratory function is the vital capacity of the lungs - the volume of air obtained during the maximum exhalation made after the maximum inhalation. Its value, measured in liters, depends on gender, age, body size and physical fitness. On average, for men it is 3.5-5 liters, for women - 2.5-4 liters.

Self-monitoring must be carried out regularly every day during all periods of training, as well as during rest. Self-monitoring data is recorded by the athlete independently; however, in the early stages, a coach helps the athlete keep a self-monitoring diary. In the future, he should periodically check how the athlete exercises self-control and keeping a diary.

Self-monitoring consists of simple, publicly available techniques for observing and taking into account subjective indicators (well-being, sleep, appetite, performance, etc.) and objective research data (weight, pulse, dynamometry, vital capacity, etc.).

To keep a self-control diary, you need a small notebook, which should be lined up with self-control indicators and dates.

Well-being is a very important indicator of the impact of sports on the human body. Usually, with regular and properly conducted training, the athlete feels good: he is cheerful, cheerful, full of desire to learn, work, train, and has a high performance capacity. Well-being reflects the state and activity of the whole organism, and mainly the state of the nervous system. In the self-monitoring diary, health is noted as good, satisfactory, bad. Well-being as an indicator of physical condition must be assessed taking into account the athlete’s mood.

When conducting self-control, the following general assessment of performance is given: good, normal, reduced.

During sleep, a person restores his strength and especially the function of the central nervous system. The slightest deviations in health, not yet manifested by other symptoms, immediately affect sleep. Sleep is considered normal if it occurs quickly after a person goes to bed, is quite strong, proceeds without dreams and gives a feeling of vigor and relaxation in the morning. Poor sleep is characterized by taking a long time to fall asleep or waking up early in the night. After such a dream there is no feeling of vigor or freshness. Physical work and a normal routine help improve sleep.

The self-monitoring diary records the duration of sleep, its quality, disturbances, falling asleep, awakening, insomnia, dreams, intermittent or restless sleep.

Appetite is a very subtle indicator of the state of the body. Overload during training, illness, lack of sleep and other factors affect your appetite. Increased energy consumption caused by the activity of the human body, in particular physical exercise, increases appetite, which reflects the body's increased need for energy. The self-control diary reflects good, normal, decreased, increased appetite or lack thereof.

The diary also notes the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract function. At the same time, attention is paid to the regularity of stool, the degree of stool formation, tendency to constipation or diarrhea, etc.

During strenuous physical activity, sweating is quite normal. Sweating depends on individual characteristics and the state of the body. It is considered normal when an athlete sweats profusely during the first training sessions. As training increases, sweating decreases. Sweating is usually noted as profuse, large, average or reduced.

The desire to train and participate in competitions is typical for healthy and especially young people who need physical exercise, as I.P. Pavlova, bring “muscular joy”. If an athlete does not feel the desire to train and participate in competitions, then this is an obvious sign of the onset of overwork or the initial phase of overtraining. The desire to play sports is marked with the words “great”, “is”, “no”.

In the column of the self-control diary “Content of the training and how it is transferred,” the essence of the training is stated in a very short form, because these data, in combination with other indicators, greatly facilitate the explanation of certain deviations. This column indicates the duration of the main parts of the training session. At the same time, it is indicated how the athlete endured the training: good, satisfactory, difficult.

Without information about violations of the general regime, it is sometimes impossible to explain changes in indicators in other columns of the diary. Athletes are well aware of the need to adhere to a general regime: if an athlete really seriously decides to play sports and achieve high results, then compliance with the regime must be strictly mandatory.

The benefits of self-control

When a person knows how to control himself, he stands out from the rest.

More than 9,000 people have gotten rid of their psychological problems using this technique.

Such a person has the following qualities:

  • freedom – there are no external restrictions for development;
  • peace - appears due to sound self-esteem and self-confidence;
  • self-esteem - a person looks at himself through the eyes of others, acquires the ability to direct his feelings and actions in a worthy direction;
  • experience - the ability to manage oneself teaches one to manage others.

While mastering the technique of self-control, a new level of patience is mastered, which helps to correct internal shortcomings and overcome external obstacles.

What does the assessment of self-control in communication include?

The parameter assessed in this test is close to emotional and social intelligence, but still differs from it. Generally speaking, Marion Snyder identified two strategies that a person most often adheres to during communication: he can focus on his own feelings and emotions

on the feelings, emotions, states of the interlocutors
Anyone who, on a conscious or unconscious level, adheres to the second strategy, monitors verbal and non-verbal signals emanating from the interlocutors
adapts to the situation
in which the conversation takes place.
In other words, such a person is largely oriented towards external factors
, while

those who primarily follow their own feelings are oriented internal ones

People who monitor external factors, according to M. Snyder, have a high level of self-control in communication, while those who focus on internal factors have a low level

. We describe below how this manifests itself in practice. But we advise you to return to this description after you take the online test.

Better read after taking the test

A person with high self-control, on the one hand, is able to capture the mood and feelings of other people

, and on the other hand,
to manage the impression
made on communication partners and
influence the emotions
that they experience at the moment.
This is expressed in the ability to adapt to the characteristics of the interlocutor and the situation
: a person with high self-control understands how, with whom and when to communicate for communication to be successful. Such a person understands what impression she will make and is able to manage it, that is, make exactly the impression that is needed.

If you observe a person with a high level of self-control, you can see that he is flexible in communication and communicates differently with different people

At the same time, from the outside it is difficult to tell from such people what they really think and feel, because they may not show their real emotions in conversation

In turn, people with low self-control are more straightforward in expressing their own emotions

They are less flexible
, do not always focus on the impression they will make, and cannot control it.
They are guided primarily by their attitudes and internal needs, so they communicate almost the same way with all interlocutors. Representatives of this type do not consider it necessary to adapt
to anyone, except in some exceptional cases.

Control and self-control

Control, as it is understood, means conducting and managing any activity in the right way. For example, at school, a teacher monitors a student’s progress and guides him on the right path in mastering the subject.

An important component of the process is self-control, as a necessary factor present in the follower. These two concepts are always interconnected and influenced by each other.

To improve learning outcomes, a student independently develops character and develops internal mechanisms that regulate concentration on results and work on completing a task.

At school, a mark in the class register becomes a means of monitoring students. Over time, the criteria for assessing knowledge change, but fundamentally, the scheme does not undergo major changes.

The controller of consciousness has no attachment to material pleasures. He can, by renunciation, achieve perfect and unlimited freedom. Bhagavad Gita

In this way, children learn the basics of teacher control and have the opportunity to learn self-control within themselves, recognizing the need for such factors in the learning process.

Self-control and self-assessment in educational activities. methodological development on the topic

Self-control and self-assessment in educational activities.

1 slide. The most important task of the school at the present stage is to teach students to independently acquire knowledge and apply it in practice. In this regard, the formation of schoolchildren’s educational activities is of particular importance.

Educational activity is the leading activity in primary school age, and that is why its structure should be laid down from the first days of a child’s stay at school. One of the components of educational activity, with which, according to psychologists, its formation should begin, is self-control.

Self-control organized in the lesson leads to the concentration of attention of all students, forms the ability to reason in the practical activities of each child, allows students to better understand the material being studied, which almost eliminates errors in notebooks and thereby creates a situation of success for each student.

2 slide. In recent years, the problem of self-control has increasingly become the subject of psychological and pedagogical research. In our opinion, this is due to the fact that self-control is one of the most important factors ensuring independent activity of students. Its purpose is to timely prevent or detect errors that have already been committed. It is most rational to begin the formation of educational activities with the formation of independent control. Meanwhile, the test shows that it is the skill of self-control that is usually the most poorly developed among students.

Authors who use the concept of self-control do not always understand it in the same way. But with all the variety of definitions, this concept necessarily includes such a feature as comparing one’s action - its course, or its result, or both together - with a standard, a model. In some cases, a pattern is understood as a given result of an action; in another, a pattern is the very order of execution of the main action, content and sequence of its operations. The need to develop self-control for successful performance of activities is recognized by all researchers. All works also argue that self-control should be specifically taught.

3 slide. Let's look at how some researchers define self-control.

“Self-control is the student’s ability to evaluate his work from two points of view: did I answer correctly? Have I answered everything? Very close to this definition of self-control is the definition of V.I. Strakhov, who believes that “Self-control is a form of activity that manifests itself in checking the assigned task, in critically assessing the work process, and in fulfilling its shortcomings.” D.B. Elkonin formulates the concept of self-control a little differently, but its meaning remains the same: “The action of control consists in comparing the action reproduced by the child and its result with a model through a preliminary image.” A sample method of action must contain reference points, based on comparison with which a control action can be carried out before the desired action for which this method is used is carried out.

4 slide. The following two definitions look at self-control more broadly. So, in the definition given by I.I. Kuvshinov, self-control is identified with conscious activity in general: “Self-control is the conscious regulation and planning of activities based on the analysis of changes occurring in the subject of labor, allowing one to achieve the set goal.” G.A. Sobolev believes that “self-control is the ability to think critically about one’s actions, feelings and thoughts, to regulate and manage one’s behavior. Self-control is related to the personality as a whole.”

So, the psychological and pedagogical literature reflects various approaches to determining the essence of self-control. The authors of some works consider self-control as a personality trait in the broad sense of the word. Other authors consider self-control to be an act of human mental activity (a form of manifestation and development of self-awareness, thinking, quality of the mind, a sign of its criticality, discipline). In many works, self-control is defined as a component of students’ educational activities, which consists of analyzing and regulating its progress and results, or as the ability (skill, habit) to control one’s activities and correct noticed errors. Finally, there are authors who consider self-control a method (means, condition) for self-regulation of behavior, activity and activation of learning. In some works, self-control is determined not by one, but by two or three signs. All these definitions are not wrong.

An analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature showed that there are two reasons for the insufficient development of self-control in younger schoolchildren:

1) the impulsiveness of the child’s character, due to the dynamic properties of the nervous system;

2) lack of development of techniques and methods of organizing activities, lack of adequate pedagogical conditions in the family and school, and insufficiently qualified individual approach.

5 slide. In accordance with this, the work of the teacher is carried out in two main directions.

The first direction is related to the prevention of external causes of insufficient development of self-control. The following general methods contribute to the successful formation of self-control:

  • creating a favorable psychological climate in the classroom,
  • reduction of emotional and psychological overloads of children,

and special ones:

  • mastering the basics of organizing the activities of teachers and students in the classroom,
  • revealing the capabilities of a primary school student;
  • work in conditions of positive cognitive conflict;
  • turning to dialogic forms of interaction;
  • coordination of expectations from the child from the family and school.

The second direction is related to preventing the occurrence of internal problems in the development of self-control. Among the subjective conditions and preventive measures, we note the actualization of the needs of younger schoolchildren in cognition, encouraging manifestations of self-control; planning situations that stimulate the development of self-control; a variety of intellectual and practical activities to identify the importance of self-control in educational activities.

6 slide The process of developing self-control in educational activities among younger schoolchildren includes three stages:

a) developing in students the need to develop self-control skills;

b) teaching schoolchildren a system of knowledge that reveals the essence of self-control and the ways of its formation;

c) carrying out long-term training activities to develop self-control skills.

Forming the ability of self-control in younger schoolchildren is of great personal significance because:

– promotes the activation of their educational and cognitive activities;

– allows students to properly organize their learning activities and consciously carry out corrections of all components of its actions;

– contributes to the formation of such personal qualities as initiative, independence, responsibility, etc.

Self-control is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The action of control consists in comparing the action reproduced by the child and its result with a sample through a preliminary image.

During self-control, a person performs mental and practical actions for self-assessment, adjustment and improvement of the work they perform, and masters the relevant skills. In addition, self-control contributes to the development of thinking.

Speech is of great importance for human behavior, self-esteem and self-regulation. The role of inner speech, which is a mechanism of self-awareness, is especially important. Self-control is also closely related to memory and attention. In this way, memory ensures that the image is fixed so that the progress and results of the work performed can be compared with it. Sensations and perceptions play a large role in the implementation of self-control.

Being a quality of personality and a condition for the manifestation of its independence and activity, self-control at the same time is an integral part, a necessary component of all types of educational and work activities. It is necessary not only when performing independent work, but also when performing tasks at all previous stages, starting with trial actions performed under external control. Thanks to self-control, the child finally masters a certain method of action.

It is necessary not only when performing independent work, but also when performing tasks at all previous stages, starting with trial actions performed under external control. Thanks to self-control, the child finally masters a certain method of action. In addition, the authors point out that without special development of self-control techniques and skills, the quality of activity remains very low. Only on the basis of self-control is it possible to regulate activity when performing certain operations.

Like the concept of self-control, its function in psychological and pedagogical literature is interpreted differently.

Attributing to self-control only the functions of recording the state of work performed and assessing one’s activities and behavior (based on a previously learned model), without the active participation of the individual in their regulation and correction, cannot be considered correct. The lack of correction inevitably leads to incomplete self-control, a decrease in its effectiveness and the severity of self-esteem. Therefore, self-control should include not only the evaluation function, but also students’ regulation of their activities and behavior, correction and detection of errors, making adjustments, rationalization and improvement of the work performed.

The control, evaluation and regulatory functions included in the content of self-control relate not only to the process and result of the work performed, but also to its planning.

Self-control is an integral part of all types of educational activities and is carried out at all stages of its implementation. It includes sensory, mental and motor components of activity, allowing the student, on the basis of a set goal, intended plan and learned pattern, to monitor his actions, the results of these actions and consciously regulate them. At the same time, during self-control, the feasibility and effectiveness of the process of performing the work itself, the planned plan and the already implemented regulation are assessed.

The general evolution of self-control is presented as follows: initially, children can control themselves only according to ready-made models presented by the teacher. Self-testing based on existing knowledge becomes available to children later, when a certain fund of well-established techniques and operations accumulates. Control begins to coincide more and more with the main action and, finally, even ahead of it. From the final result of an action, self-control gradually spreads to all earlier phases of activity. Naturally, at this final stage, for all observations, control appears simply as direction and concentration on the object, as a careful examination of the situation and the same careful use of the main action.

So, changes in self-control are manifested in the fact that initially it is aimed at the result of the activity and only gradually the ability to control the process of activity itself is developed.

Slide 7 In accordance with the level of formation of control activities, several types of self-control are distinguished. As a rule, control based on results or so-called final control predominates in educational activities. This is the initial and simplest form of self-control that students master. Its function is to compare the result with a given sample, i.e. verification is performed. During the verification process, children are convinced that the answer satisfies all initial conditions, otherwise the solution is carried out incorrectly. We ourselves teach children exactly this kind of control. So, in order to check the correctness of an arithmetic operation, students are recommended to check it with another operation: addition by subtraction, division by multiplication, etc. Thus, it is not the correctness of individual operations and their sequence that is checked, but the result obtained.

It is advisable to use outcome-based control at the initial stage of self-control formation, and then gradually move on to its other types.

8 slide. The function of operational control is to identify the completeness, correctness and sequence of actions performed. This type of control in the psychological literature is defined as step-by-step. He, first of all, draws students' attention to the method of action they carry out.

Slide 9

10 slide. An even more complex form of control is preliminary (predictive) control, which gives the student the opportunity to anticipate the results of an action that has not yet been carried out. By internally replaying the sequence of actions necessary to solve a learning task and predicting the possible results of the activity, students, using this form of control, can highlight the most difficult stages of solving a learning task and outline ways to improve themselves. This type of control carries the function of “determining by students the general strategy of educational activities.”

Classification of self-control is also carried out on the basis of other characteristics. Based on the elements included in it, they are distinguished:

— self-control, ascertaining and correcting;

by methods of obtaining information about the progress of the operation being performed

– direct and indirect control;

by type, which sense organs are involved in assessing the operation being performed - musculomotor, visual, auditory, combined. There is also a classification of self-control according to the forms of organizing students’ work. Let's look at it in more detail.

Slide 11 According to this classification, self-control is divided into frontal, individual and mutual verification.

12 slide. During a frontal check, a collective analysis of the correctness of the written text, the completed exercise, the problem solved in class and at home, the manufactured product, etc. is carried out. During this test, students analyze the mistakes made, their causes and ways to eliminate them, get acquainted with ways to implement self-control, discuss and evaluate their friends’ suggestions for correcting their mistakes. This form is the simplest and is used, as a rule, for the initial training of students in self-control.

Slide 13 Mutual control is carried out when checking written and graphic works, products, etc., as well as when reviewing oral answers and messages. Students exchange works, and each of them acts as a reviewer. They must note the mistakes made by their comrades, explain their reasons, methods of correction and suggestions for performing similar work. Mutual control allows students to deepen their knowledge and skills, promotes the development of attention, a responsible attitude to business, and the formation of self-control skills. This is a higher form of self-control action and is a means of teaching students self-control.

Slide 14 Individual control includes all types of self-control carried out at the stages of the activity performed. This is the basic and most difficult form of self-control. Everyone performs all elements of self-control.

Self-control is a component of educational activity, but even with the appropriate prerequisites, educational activity does not arise immediately in the child. A child who has just arrived at school, although he begins to learn under the guidance of a teacher, does not yet know how to study. Educational activities are formed in the learning process under the guidance of a teacher. Its formation is the most important task of learning - a task no less important than the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities.

Creating conditions for children to accumulate control experience, we used a set of successively more complex tasks that stimulated the development of final, operational, and predictive SC.

Slide 15 So, in first grade, children learn:

– compare the result of one’s activities with the model specified in material form;

– reproduce the composition of control actions and operations specified by the teacher;

– carry out actions according to detailed instructions;

– carry out self-test according to a plan that includes 1–2 points;

– use diagrams-models compiled by the teacher for SC.

16 slide. In grade II, students are offered:

– compare the intermediate result with the standard;

– list the sequence of actions and control operations;

– correct notes;

– carry out actions according to instructions in which some links are missing;

– carry out self-test according to a plan that includes 3–4 points;

– participate in the activities of drawing up diagrams, algorithms, rules and definitions.

Slide 17 In grade III, students train in:

– comparing the result of an activity with a sample specified through a system of conditions;

– drawing up test tasks for self-control;

– collective development of algorithms;

– performing actions according to instructions with restrictions;

– self-test according to plan with missing links;

– drawing up a model of significant conditions for activity under the guidance of a teacher.

In fourth grade, schoolchildren practice:

– comparison of the result of activity with a sample based on independently predicted conditions of effectiveness;

– determining the composition of actions and operations of upcoming activities with an analysis of subjective difficulties;

– performing actions according to general instructions;

– self-test according to the plan with missing (underdetermined) links;

– independent adjustment of the inspection plan;

– purposeful development of a general method of monitoring all such tasks under the guidance of a teacher.

This gradual complication of tasks from grades I to IV, the possibility of repeated exercises throughout the year on different subject material (Russian language, mathematics, labor, art, natural history) contribute to the clear development of each action of the SC.

Since in the process of working on the formation of self-control, the attitude of schoolchildren towards it as a component of educational activity changes, the level of its formation gradually changes. When determining this level, the following criteria are taken into account:

  1. The average number of errors made by students when completing a learning task and their frequency.
  2. The average number of errors missed when checking a friend’s work and one’s own and the frequency of their omission.

You can also use additional criteria:

  1. The average number of errors discovered by students when checking a friend’s work and their own.
  2. Score in points for the completed task.

Let us describe the levels of self-control formation.

18 slide. “The first level is lack of control.

The actions and operations performed by the student are not controlled in any way; they often turn out to be incorrect; mistakes made are not noticed and are not corrected.

He does not know how to correct a mistake either independently or at the request of the teacher, because... is not able to correlate his actions and their results with a given action pattern and detect their compliance or inconsistency. He is uncritical of the teacher’s instructions and correction of errors in his work, agrees with any corrections, including when it immediately changes to the opposite.

Repeatedly repeats the same mistakes after being corrected by the teacher. Cannot explain why an action should be performed this way and not otherwise.

He also does not notice the mistakes made by other students. Pays attention only to violation of external requirements.

When asked by the teacher to check his work and correct mistakes, he acts chaotically, not adhering to any check plan and not correlating his actions with any scheme.

The second level is control at the level of involuntary attention.

Control is exercised unsteadily and unconsciously. It is based on an action pattern that is unconscious or poorly recognized by the student, which is fixed in his involuntary memory due to repeated performance of the same action.

The student acts impulsively, chaotically, but due to involuntary memorization of the action pattern and involuntary attention, he seems to predict the direction of the correct actions, but cannot explain why he should do it this way and not otherwise, and easily abandons his decision. He can perform well-known actions without error, and if he makes a mistake, he can detect it on his own or at the request of the teacher, but he does not do this systematically. He cannot explain either the error itself or the correct option; he gives only formal answers like: “that’s wrong,” “that’s how it should be.”

The third level is potential control at the level of voluntary attention.

When performing a new task, a student may make a mistake, however, if the teacher asks him to check his actions or find and correct an error, the student, as a rule, finds it and corrects it and can explain his actions.

The student is aware of the action schemes introduced by the teacher and can compare his own experience with them, although he does not always do this, especially when performing new actions. Having performed an action without conscious control, he can immediately, at the request of the teacher, control it retrospectively and, if necessary, make appropriate corrections. As an independent purposeful action, control is available to such a student and can be performed by him, but this happens mainly only after the end of the action at the request of the teacher.

The fourth level is actual control at the level of voluntary attention.

In the process of performing an action, the student is guided by a well-realized and assimilated generalized scheme of action and successfully correlates the process of solving the problem with it. This leads to the fact that actions are performed, as a rule, without errors. Mistakes made are detected and corrected independently, and cases of repetition of the same mistakes are extremely rare. The student can correctly explain his actions.

Can accurately complete any task based on the same method of action, skillfully correlating them with the learned scheme. Consciously controls the actions of other students when performing a task together.

However, when faced with a new learning task or a change in the conditions of action that require adjustments to the action scheme itself, the student finds himself helpless and cannot deviate from the given scheme.

The fifth level is potential reflexive control.

Faced with a new task that is outwardly similar to the one solved previously, the student accurately performs educational actions in accordance with the previous scheme, without noticing that this scheme turns out to be inadequate to the new conditions. Mistakes made can be detected with the help of the teacher and, by answering his leading questions, can explain their source. Usually, after this, the student tries to correct his actions, to rebuild the method used, however, he manages to do this only with the help of the teacher. Under the guidance of the teacher, he can proceed to highlighting the principles for constructing an action plan of the appropriate type.

He performs tasks that correspond to the applied scheme of actions, both familiar and unfamiliar, regularly and accurately, controlling his actions directly in the process of execution. Confidently defends the result of his actions, justifying it with an analysis of the methods used.

The sixth level is actual reflexive control.

When solving a new educational problem that is outwardly similar to those solved previously, the student can independently detect errors that arise due to the inconsistency of the generalized method of action (or scheme) used by him with the new conditions of the task, and in this regard, independently make adjustments to the applied scheme of action by searching and identifying even more general grounds for action, i.e. principles of its construction.

In a number of cases, the student can begin such correction of actions even before the start of their active implementation in accordance with the learned scheme, having determined their inadequacy to new conditions in advance, as if “scrolling” them in the “mind”. In this case, the teacher’s help may be met negatively, trying to first develop a new method on their own.”

Slide 19 Thus, we can identify the following indicators of self-control in students:

  • the ability to plan it before starting work;
  • the ability to change the composition of actions in accordance with changed operating conditions;
  • the ability to consciously alternate expanded and abbreviated control formulas;
  • the ability to move from working with natural volume to working with its iconic and symbolic image;
  • ability to independently create systems of test tasks.

We can conclude that when carrying out special work on the formation of self-control, its level should increase from the first to the sixth.

20 slide. Mastering the skill of self-control provides comfort in learning, relieves stress and allows schoolchildren to study with interest and great desire, and also gives students a real “tool” with which they can manage the process of their learning at subsequent stages.

The experience of teachers who use a variety of techniques for teaching self-control proves the need for further study and implementation of reflective activity in the teaching process of younger schoolchildren.

Development of self-control

Just like all other skills, the skill of internal discipline can be developed in oneself using self-development techniques.

Impact Analysis

Every person is capable of diagnosing the causes and consequences of his actions.

If you don’t want to give up and are ready to really, and not in words, fight for your full and happy life, you may be interested in this article .

Having learned to build logical chains, it will become easier to discipline actions.

The right motivation

Encouraging interest in obtaining results is reflected in the speed and quality of task completion. Self-control is inseparable from the concept of necessity. But when a person is interested in achieving a goal as quickly as possible, enormous willpower is not required to push him to action.

More than 9,000 people have gotten rid of their psychological problems using this technique.

When the target and the benefits that will be received when hitting it are clearly visible, the process will become much more exciting.

Action plan

By introducing a clear structure into your action plan, it will be easier to control them. Without specifics and strategy, it is impossible to give an adequate description of the work. Self-discipline requires a time limit to achieve certain stages. Without clear planning, you can spend years trying to quit smoking or start doing pull-ups on the horizontal bar.

Self-control diary

To record the results and analyze the consequences, it is recommended to keep a diary, which will allow you to structure the information and lead your thoughts in the right direction.

In addition, writing notes gives the necessary relaxation to the psyche.

Taking care of your emotional health

When cultivating character, there is no need to take discipline to the point of absurdity, turning self-realization into torture. Sometimes you need to take a break and take a break for your mind and body. Neglecting breaks is fraught with apathy and the accumulation of fatigue, which can become chronic.

Discipline and regime

There are no recorded cases where a clear regime harmed anyone. Discipline in actions, a tidy apartment and beautiful entries in the diary bring only positive factors. Being sloppy takes up much-needed time that should be spent on more worthwhile endeavors than searching for a clean shirt in the morning. Having mastered a daily routine and self-discipline at any age, people begin to do some things on a subconscious level, leaving the conscious mind to deal with more important issues.


The psychology of self-control does not allow for a frivolous attitude towards temporary resources. When delays become systematic, this is a great way to ruin the opinions of others and, as a result, self-esteem. It is necessary to set strict time limits and be guided by these restrictions in the process of achieving goals.

Having mastered the principle of punctuality, it will become easier to complete tasks and not give up everything in the middle in order to do something else.

How to develop self-control

There are a large number of effective strategies that will increase self-control in both adults and children. They are suitable for both sports and business. Let's look at the best of them.

Admit you're exhausted

Research shows that self-control is a limited resource. The more often you exhibit it, the more strongly it affects the physiological level: glucose levels drop.

To put it bluntly, you always have a certain amount of self-control in the tank. When you control yourself, you deplete it and become prone to temptation. Psychologists call this "ego depletion."

Admit to yourself when your self-control level is low. This is the first step to take.

Make a preliminary decision

Prepare in advance for a tempting situation. Don't think that you can handle it without first deciding:

  • Take a certain amount of time to think.
  • Don't order a drink at a bar unless you want to smoke again.
  • Buy healthy food for home and only go to the store when you are full.

It's usually hard to make a decision in advance because we like to keep our options open.

Fight the unconscious

One of the reasons we give in to temptation is because the unconscious mind is always ready to undermine our best intentions.

The researchers found that the experiment participants were easily tempted when they began to behave on autopilot, that is, unconsciously. What can you do about it? Deal with the triggers that cause this behavior. The trigger can be anything:

  • Words, phrases, thoughts.
  • Negative and positive emotions.
  • Specific people.
  • Specific situations.

If you start avoiding these triggers, you will end the cycle of your negative behavior.

Use mental pictures

This strategy is used when temptation is nearby and cannot be physically eliminated. Therefore, you need to get him out of your psyche. And one of the best ways is to create mental pictures.

Make the temptation unpleasant with unpleasant images. If you want to quit smoking, imagine someone suffering from cancer or having to have their teeth treated. If you're trying to diet, imagine yourself in terrible shape and feeling terrible.

This method works great, but it doesn't work right away. He needs to be trained. In principle, it alone may be enough for you in 95% of all possible situations.

Identify the Deeper Need Behind the Temptation

Almost always, after thinking about your habits and behavior, you can find out that behind every vicious desire there is a deep need. We do not smoke, overeat or gamble to enjoy the poisons, chemicals and money we win. Behind all this are completely different reasons.

There is such a thing as emotional eating - using food to calm down. In addition, the stress hormone, cortisol, causes cravings for salty, sweet, and foods containing large amounts of fat. All this gives a burst of energy and pleasure. But this is not even a deep need, but simply a reason.

Find out why you give in to temptation so often. This could happen, for example, because you haven't found your calling, are dissatisfied with your life, are in a relationship with the wrong person, or have low self-esteem. If you don’t think about such things, then you simply “seize” the problem, and each time it becomes more voluminous and can ultimately manifest itself in the form of panic attacks, phobias, depression and other mental problems.

You can improve your chances if you also avoid temptation. We have already said that the ideal combination is to fight temptation and avoid it. Try to solve the problem by approaching it from different angles.

Reward yourself

This is one of the magic pills that almost all books on developing willpower and self-control offer. You can use this advice, but with caution: it works very poorly when alone, as it leads to stress. That is, you can resist temptation, promising yourself something more useful and pleasant, but until then you will feel like an unhappy person.

People with high levels of self-control are believed to be deprived of many benefits and forced to be unhappy in order to achieve long-term goals. But that's not true. They enjoy this state. And that's why reward alone doesn't work: it makes you feel like you're making a sacrifice.

Learn to enjoy self-restraint. Realize that you are increasing your level of self-control. This will be the best reward.

Plan for your failures in advance

When developing a skill or working on a task, failure is inevitable. And if you don’t prepare for this psychologically, you can get a serious blow to your pride, which will inevitably lead to a loss of self-control.

Create a recovery plan. What will you do if you smoke or eat unhealthy food? The plan should be specific and simple. This may be a punishment, because without it a feeling of guilt may arise, which will only worsen the situation.

Distract yourself

The famous marshmallow test from renowned psychologist Walter Mischel shows that children with self-control are able to distract themselves from temptation. They covered their eyes with their hands or turned so as not to see the treat, pounded on the table, pulled their hair or played with marshmallows.

These methods may seem strange to you. But nothing prevents you from coming up with something of your own: switch your attention, listen to music, think about something abstract, talk with a friend, watch a movie, drink water. Immerse yourself in something that will take your mind off temptation.

Take a few deep breaths

When you try to resist a temptation, it causes a little stress as the mind is challenged by emotions. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that is involved in decision making and behavior. Under stress, it “fails.” A few deep breaths will help correct the situation and calm the body. You will remember what important and useful goals are, after which you will pull yourself together.

Use affirmations

It is a powerful tool that works well with long-term practice. When you have trouble controlling the urge to do something you shouldn't do, encourage yourself to stick to the plan. Research shows that affirmations improve self-control and promote higher levels of mental analysis.

The next time you find it difficult to control your urge to smoke, instead of telling yourself, “I can’t resist,” think, “I don’t want to smoke,” or “I want to be a healthy person.”

When you say “I can’t,” you are sending a message to your brain that you are forcing yourself to do something you don’t want to do. And he happily indulges this desire. By saying, “I don’t want to do this,” you are reminding yourself that you are not going to take part in this bad habit.

Postpone temptation for later

This is another trick that is best used in combination with another tip. The next time you have an irresistible urge to watch a YouTube video instead of working, tell yourself: “Not now. I’ll put off watching it until later.”

The phrase that works best is: “I’ll work for another half hour, and then I’ll do what I like.” If after 30 minutes the temptation arises again, you can do this trick again. But, most likely, this will not be necessary, because staying busy with the current activity is easier for the brain than switching to something else.

Change the environment

Find out where the negative habit gets the strongest triggers. Changing your environment will help you resist temptation.

If you want to stop drinking, you may have to stop watching football to avoid going to the bar with your friends. Avoid temptation for as long as possible using a variety of tricks.


Meditation helps you control your thoughts and feelings and also improves your emotional intelligence. Which in turn improves attention, stress management and self-awareness.

The studies on this subject vary, but if we draw one conclusion from them, it will be this: eight weeks of daily meditation significantly increases self-control. Mindfulness allows you to focus on your breathing, feelings and sensations, which increases the brain's ability to resist destructive thoughts.

You've probably seen it yourself: people who regularly practice meditation seem calm and able to control their behavior.

Get enough sleep

We have already said that self-control and willpower are limited resources. If you sleep poorly, then there will be even fewer of them than usual.

In addition, if you don’t sleep enough, you are unable to make informed decisions, which will certainly lead to you giving up at a difficult moment, without finding the right words to pull yourself together.

A good night's (as well as day's) sleep can completely restore your reservoirs. Find out how much sleep you need and never sacrifice it for immediate pleasures.

Clearly define what you will control

A blurred goal is the worst enemy of self-control. If you put it as “I don’t want to be late anymore” or “I don’t want to be distracted”, then it will not lead to anything good.

Instead, analyze your daily routine as well as your environment. Having a specific goal will help improve self-control. For example: “For an hour, I will not pick up my phone or check social media.”

Write down all your impulsive thoughts

Despite its position at the bottom of the list, this is one of the best strategies. You should write down all your impulsive thoughts that prevent you from sticking to the plan. There are three advantages to this:

  • You will learn to work with negative thoughts.
  • You will begin to pay conscious attention to them.
  • You will see what ridiculous excuses you come up with for yourself.

The third is especially important: a person shows amazing creativity when he wants to eat junk food (“I deserve it!”) or smoke (“I’m stressed!”). After all, you have to live in a cave not to understand that a cigarette causes stress, and does not relieve it. And also have a strange logic, believing that you can earn the right to destroy your body. Excuses are something you need to pay special attention to.

Write down all such thoughts, especially when you want to give up.

Look at the big picture

Practical people always look at the big picture because it helps them achieve long-term goals. When working on a complex project, it can be tempting to take a week off. But if you look at everything globally, you will understand that this act will only distance you from the finale and ultimately make you more unhappy.

Why is a high level of self-control dangerous?

An excessive level of self-discipline leads to constant mental stress. The ability to freely express feelings disappears.

Feelings tend to accumulate. They come out on their own at the most inopportune moment or are expressed in the form of the acquisition of diseases.

According to statistics, up to 63% of secluded individuals are susceptible to heart disease and gastrointestinal diseases.

To avoid such developments, it is necessary to engage in prevention. Shouting into the air in deserted places and breaking dishes help relieve accumulated tension. Some martial art classes are shown.

Our demons will never die - they are always nearby. Demons walk holding our hand, whisper and hug us during sleep. No one is able to drive them away, but no one is able to build coexistence. Someone will take the path of ignoring. Someone will turn into a slave. And someone establishes control over them and every second monitors compliance with the rules that he himself established. Victor Usmansky.

Techniques called auto-training have proven themselves to be excellent. It normalizes the psychological state and gives a tangible positive effect in teaching self-control.

Simple exercises to improve self-control

The topic - how to develop self-control - is vast and multifaceted. It is necessary to understand that without certain components, self-control loses all meaning. The correct formation of self-control depends on a person’s ability to control his behavior in different life situations. In this matter, self-monitoring of the effectiveness of independent studies is of particular importance. In other words, every person should set himself up for a positive outcome in any situation. A convenient form of self-control are objective indicators, based on which you can manage your condition.

How to develop self-control

Of course, everyday problems can throw you off balance. According to psychologists, the best techniques aimed at developing self-control are meditation, yoga, and reflection. The essence of most techniques is dialogue with yourself. This helps to understand what the soul and body really want. Experts recommend giving up carnal desires and spending more time in nature, since spiritual development is the basis of self-control.

Important! Regular exercises allow you to develop self-control at the level of habit, and as you know, habits are difficult to break.

It is necessary to instill discipline in a child from childhood, to instill the skills of self-control over the effectiveness of independent studies. Self-control is a necessary quality in life, since such children in the future will occupy successful, serious positions, build a career and not be afraid of difficulties. Learning to control yourself as an adult is much more difficult than as a child.

How adults can teach a child self-control:

  • education - children imitate their parents in everything, so the best example of self-control is your own;
  • daily routine – the child should have a clear daily routine, this is the best way to develop and strengthen a sense of responsibility;
  • proper nutrition - sticking to proper nutrition is quite difficult, so this is one of the methods for developing self-control;
  • punctuality - teach your child to keep a diary and regularly write down their affairs and intended goals;
  • If possible, attend trainings and seminars on personal development with your child.

Important! Pay special attention to the development of self-control in educational activities.

Sports are the best form of self-control. Daily training develops discipline, requires responsibility and the ability to interact as a team.

Self-control during exercise

Athletes who engage in physical exercise professionally know for certain that they need to constantly monitor themselves during exercise.

Self-monitoring cannot replace an examination with a doctor, but it will be useful as a supplement. With its help, a professional will be able to evaluate the results of training and personal endurance. This approach will allow you to introduce coordination of loads and a regime for visiting the gym.

The athlete’s self-control is based on monitoring a set of criteria that make it possible to assess the picture of well-being, namely:

  • sleep productivity;
  • emotional mood;
  • presence of appetite;
  • health indicators;
  • desire or unwillingness to attend training;
  • weight change;
  • pulse;
  • presence of fatigue;
  • assessment of breathing under stress and at rest.

Analysis of this data provides a detailed understanding of the overall condition of the athlete's body. At the slightest suspicion of the presence of deviations, it is necessary to consult a doctor who will identify a complete health record and provide useful advice on self-control (observance of a daily routine, balanced diet, personal hygiene).


  • "Resilience" by Sharon Melnick
  • "The Psychology of Emotions: Feelings in Control" Dan Dubravin
  • "Strength of will. How to develop and strengthen" Kelly McGonigal
  • "Developing Willpower" Walter Mischel
  • "On the limit. A week without self-pity" Eric Bertrand Larssen
  • The Psychology of Achievement by Heidi Grant Halvorson
  • “Get out of your comfort zone. Change your life. 21 methods for increasing personal effectiveness" Brian Tracy
  • “Don't put it off until tomorrow. A short guide to fighting procrastination by Timothy Pychyl
  • “18 minutes. How to increase your concentration, stop distractions and get things done that really matter." Peter Bregman
  • "Be the best version of yourself" Dan Waldschmidt

Sometimes, in order to develop self-control, you need to constantly think about it. What dominates thoughts becomes something tangible and we begin to be aware. So don't just think about this skill, but also get a lot of information: read blogs, books, watch videos on this topic.

We wish you good luck!

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Key words:_D1034, 1Psychoregulation, 4Psychoregulation

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