Psychological and pedagogical characteristics of school maladjustment

School maladjustment is a very common phenomenon among modern schoolchildren. A large number of children experience serious problems with adaptation to the educational process, which manifest themselves in various ways. This has a negative impact on their academic performance, interests and relationships with teachers and peers. This disorder often manifests itself in younger schoolchildren who were unable to adapt to educational activities in time, although it is also quite common among adolescents.

School maladaptation - what is it, concept

School maladjustment is a disruption in the functioning of the child’s adaptation mechanisms to the educational process, which affects his productivity and relationships with others. It can be triggered by various factors, which most often come together:

  • heredity;
  • individual characteristics and neoplasms;
  • relationships with family or individuals;
  • problems in establishing social contacts, etc.

Schoolchildren who are at risk of school maladaptation experience difficulties in adaptation, have problems with mastering educational material and academic performance. Their relationships with peers and adults are difficult. And personal development proceeds sluggishly: these are often infantile children, they like to lie, they easily fall under the influence of others, and they are poorly aware of their “I”.

Psychogenic school maladaptation is a phenomenon that can begin to develop at any time during education. It occurs especially often during the transition from kindergarten to school, and then during the transition from primary to secondary school. Often, any personality conflicts of the child provoke the occurrence of a violation. Therefore, the problem of social and school maladaptation has long remained relevant in pedagogy and psychology.

What it is

School maladjustment is a child’s inability to adapt to school realities, when the demands of teachers become a psychologically traumatic factor for him for a number of reasons. Provocateurs can be his personal developments, heredity, family, relationships with a specific adult and many other circumstances, and almost always they do not come alone, but in a whole bunch.

The main manifestations include difficulties in mastering educational material, ignoring the rules of behavior, low academic performance, indiscipline, and difficulties in communicating with others.

A striking example of school maladjustment is a first-grader who is accustomed to the daily routine of kindergarten. After lunch you could sleep there, they helped you tie your shoelaces, if you couldn’t draw a hedgehog, it didn’t matter. And at home there were loving parents, a computer, games and entertainment. But that was before. Everything changes dramatically when he enters first grade. The intense rhythm of the day, you can’t be late, the breaks are short, you need to cope with all the difficulties yourself. Something didn’t work out - a bad grade. And even at home you have to learn lessons, for failure to do which your mother punishes you.

If the child is psychologically prepared for such changes, adaptation will proceed normally. But some find themselves so confused during the transition from kindergarten to school life that they become disoriented. Result: “I won’t go to school”, “I won’t do my homework”, “I’m not interested”, “I don’t understand anything”, etc. Negativity spills over to everyone around me, relationships with teachers, peers, and parents deteriorate.

A situation of school maladaptation can arise at any time. It manifests itself especially clearly during key periods: during the transition from kindergarten to school, from junior to secondary school, and also in adolescence. But this can happen in the middle of the school year if some personal conflicts arise.

The problem has been relevant in psychology and pedagogy for many years. Most often, children who are diagnosed with it are labeled “difficult children.” With it, he somehow finishes 9th grade and graduates with a bunch of complexes, and sometimes even personality disorders. This is the fault of teachers (who have no time to work with him), school psychologists (whose entire function boils down to diagnosis, but in correction they turn out to be incompetent), parents (who were unable to help and support him in a timely manner).

Approaches to solving the problem

Currently, teachers together with psychologists have developed three approaches to the concept of school and social maladjustment and resolution of this problem:

  1. School maladjustment is defined as a mental personality disorder, which can only be overcome through psychiatric treatment.
  2. School maladjustment is considered as a pedagogical phenomenon, where the main factor in its occurrence is the relationship with teachers (their style of teaching and education, manner of communication). In this case, it is they who must correct the violation.
  3. A broader approach, which is considered as a socio-psychological process of the formation and development of conflict between the child and school requirements. In this case, the solution is an integrated approach to solving the problem.

The third option looks the most optimal and comprehensive in its logic and validity. But, despite this, experts still have disputes, because the vastness of the problem does not allow finding universal ways to solve it.

School maladjustment as a pedagogical phenomenon: how is it formed?

Everyone knows that when entering school, a child experiences a little stress. There is a strong impact on his psyche, since his usual way of life has changed forever.

In this regard, the phenomenon of school maladjustment arises. As a rule, this situation lasts up to three to four months. There are cases when children do not have adaptation difficulties at all, or they do not appear in the first year of education.

So, we should consider in more detail what school maladaptation is as a pedagogical phenomenon. This concept has several meanings.

Firstly, it is considered as the student’s inability to adapt to the changing conditions of learning at school, which in turn is a particular violation of mental adaptation in general due to certain pathological factors. In this case, school maladjustment is understood as a health disorder, as a disease, as a deviation from the norm. Difficulties arise in getting rid of this problem, since the concept of a norm is very vague and ambiguous.

Secondly, school maladjustment is understood as a process of reducing a child’s ability to learn due to the fact that the learning environment does not correspond to his individual characteristics. Here, both the characteristics of the child and the conditions of the school environment are seen as the main factors of maladjustment. In this case, school maladjustment is not considered a disease, but is a completely normal phenomenon.

Thirdly, school maladaptation is considered as a combination of pedagogical and school factors that lead to violations. Most often, maladaptation occurs when the requirements for a student do not match his abilities.

Fourthly, maladaptation can be considered as the student’s inability to find “his” place at school, in the learning process. It is important here that the teacher has an individual approach to each child.

Scientists identify several periods during which school maladaptation can occur most often:

Entering the first grade, the beginning of schooling, when the child’s entire habitual way of life changes, and he finds himself in a completely unfamiliar environment;

The transition from primary to secondary school, when other teachers replace the first teacher;

The end of high school, when the child has not yet decided how to live next, which path to take.

Various factors can influence the occurrence of school maladjustment. It is necessary to highlight the most important among them:

· The level of development of the child as a whole, his psychophysiological and mental functions, his health. Based on psychophysiological signs, the child may not be ready for school, then the option of sending him to school a year later should be considered;

· Features of the organization of the educational process. Most often, teachers prefer an authoritarian teaching style, that is, without taking into account the characteristics of students and their individual differences;

· Family education. There can be two options here: either excessive guardianship or complete rejection of the child by the parents. Overprotection leads to the fact that the child is completely unadapted to life, and rejection leads to the fact that he ceases to obey school rules and observe elementary forms of behavior;

· Maladjustment can also occur if the school curriculum is too complex and the workload is heavy;

· Student self-esteem plays an important role in the phenomenon of school maladjustment. If a child does not have a high opinion of himself, then he will experience disturbances in the adaptation process. The same will happen if self-esteem is too high.

School maladjustment is a fairly common phenomenon, especially among elementary school students. If the state of maladjustment is not overcome, the child will feel constant discomfort, decreased activity, and reluctance to learn.

If adaptation to school is successful, the child will behave actively and develop a positive attitude towards school. Therefore, it is very important to diagnose school maladaptation in the early stages of manifestation.

Levels of development of school maladjustment

In the process of development of school maladjustment in a child, 3 different levels can be distinguished and traced.


If a student finds himself in an uncomfortable or conflict situation, he experiences a number of physiological problems, such as:

  • inability to concentrate on one mental or physical operation for a long time;
  • irritability from loud sounds, flashes of light, strong odors;
  • restlessness;
  • sudden mood swings;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • difficulty waking up and falling asleep, etc.

All of these problems are not permanent; they are only caused by a conflict situation. When solved, they disappear and are easily corrected.

Types of school maladjustment

The process of development of school maladaptation is individual for each child, so its type in its pure form is almost impossible to determine. Almost always, varieties can be combined and create a whole complex of deviations. The most common types are:

  1. Social. Includes denial of socially accepted attitudes, antisocial behavior, and student self-regulation problems.
  2. Psychosocial. Characterized by psychological characteristics of the individual (including gender and age). The less attention and individual approach is given to the child, the more clearly this type of maladjustment manifests itself.
  3. Pathogenic. It manifests itself through disturbances in the functioning of the brain, mental disorders, and sometimes phobias that the student has.
  4. Intelligent. It often manifests itself not in elementary school, but in older children. Caused by missed and unrecovered knowledge gaps that impact learning.
  5. Emotional. It is identified through an increased level of anxiety, a feeling of fear for academic performance. This type occurs in children with high motivation but low self-esteem.


If the child is happy with school and his whole life, then there will be no problems. This means that all work should be aimed at developing a positive attitude of the child towards life, himself, the environment, school and all participants in the educational process. Any activity that is significant to the child’s personality and gives him positive emotions, including communication as a separate activity, will help with this.

Read more about successful school adaptation, its signs and the role of parents in this, in the article “Psychological features of a child’s adaptation to school. Types and levels of adaptation." About the signs and factors of maladaptation - in the article “School maladjustment: what is it, causes and signs.”

Causes of school maladjustment

The opinions of psychologists about the possible causes of school maladjustment vary. Some believe that the only problem of school maladaptation is didactogenic disorders: the contradiction between the requirements of the educational environment and the individual psychophysical characteristics of the child. Others are inclined to believe that there are a number of prerequisites for school maladaptation that lead to the occurrence of this phenomenon.

The reasons for school maladaptation of younger schoolchildren include:

  • insufficient preparedness for school: lack of basic understanding of the world, the level of development of psychomotor skills is below average, which makes it difficult for a student to keep up with classmates;
  • low level of development of cognitive processes and some mental functions (too low or, conversely, too high self-esteem, distracted attention, poor memory);
  • behavioral problems: the student cannot sit through an entire lesson without getting distracted or getting up;
  • parental influence: overprotection, fear of mistakes and failures, insufficient attention to the child, unfavorable conditions and atmosphere in the family;
  • influence from the teacher: authoritarianism, excessive demands, lack of an individual approach to each child or division into favorites and others;
  • social aspect: relationships with peers do not work out, they are not recognized in the class;
  • any psychological disorders and disorders (including hereditary ones);
  • inability to adapt to the curriculum (high pace, complexity, specific features).


There is no consensus in educational and developmental psychology to explain the reasons for the development of school maladaptation in students. Some believe that the only provoking factor is an insoluble conflict between the demands of the educational environment and the psychophysical characteristics of the child. Others name multiple preconditions that lead to the development of this problem.

Most often, the following circumstances become psychotraumatic factors (prerequisites):

  • inability to master school material due to disturbances in analyzers, physical defects, problems of intellectual and psychomotor development, limited mental abilities (the consequences of the influence of these factors are called didactogenies);
  • heredity: congenital vulnerability of the central nervous system;
  • teacher influence, for example, excessive demands, injustice, having favorites, authoritarian style, etc. (consequences - didascalogeny);
  • family influence: dysfunctional environment, lack of attention from parents, parenting style, etc.;
  • low or high self-esteem;
  • poor relationships with peers, the position of an outcast or unrecognized in the class;
  • any mental trauma and personality disorders.

Most often, a violation of the adaptation process develops in a child under the influence of a whole range of reasons. Among them there are psychophysiological prerequisites:

  • school immaturity - unpreparedness for stress;
  • insufficient development of voluntariness - inability to adhere to discipline, rules of behavior, basic instructions for actions;
  • unformed school type of thinking;
  • problems with speech or hearing;
  • low level of cognition;
  • lack of internal position.

Since the factors of school maladjustment lie in the sphere of not only the psyche, but also physiology, their elimination should be comprehensively addressed not only by psychologists and teachers, but also by doctors, and with the deep interest and support of parents.

Types of manifestation of school maladjustment

There are 5 types of manifestation of school maladaptation, which differ in the reasons that caused the violation.


This type of maladaptation is expressed in the student’s failure to perform according to the school curriculum, which corresponds to age characteristics. It can be either chronic in all subjects or fragmentary (from time to time). It is difficult for a child to keep up with the pace of the whole class: he is late for lessons, gets tired quickly and takes a long time to complete assignments.


This type of maladjustment is associated with an emotional and personal attitude towards the entire learning process or to individual subjects. The student violently expresses his emotions, which are caused by a feeling of fear and anxiety in relation to lessons, teachers, and school locations.


The behavioral type of maladaptation is characterized by the child’s inability to control his own behavior and weak self-regulation. He violates social norms of behavior at school: he is aggressive, enters into conflicts with others, and does not want to make any contact. There is no motivation to study and engage in other activities.


Another type of school maladjustment, which is associated with various deviations and problems with the physical development and health of the student. Fatigue, diseases of internal organs and weak immunity negatively affect a child’s academic performance and communication.


This type of maladjustment occurs due to difficulties in communicating and establishing contacts with peers and teachers. A student may be shy, not be able to carry on a conversation, or not know how to ask for help. All this ends in failures, which make him withdraw into himself even more.

School maladjustment psychology consultation

The concept of school disruption. Levels and forms of school maladjustment.

Adaptation can be defined as the level of a person’s adaptation, which manifests itself through his social status and sense of self, satisfaction or dissatisfaction with himself and his life. A person can be harmonious and adapted, or disharmonious and maladapted. As research and practice indicate, maladaptation always has a psychosomatic nature (both soul and body) and occurs in three forms: neurotic (neuroses), aggressive-protest and capitulative-depressive (psychosomatic diseases and behavioral disorders).

People vary in their level of adaptability. The innate foundations of adaptability are instincts, temperament, body constitution, emotions, innate intellect, external data, and the physical state of the body. The level of adaptability increases or decreases under the influence of upbringing, training, conditions and lifestyle.

There is a concept of school maladjustment, which means a violation (or non-occurrence) of balance, harmonious relationships between the child and the school environment, in which the child suffers. A certain set of signs indicating a discrepancy between the socio-psychological and psychophysiological status of the child and the requirements of the school learning situation, the mastery of which for a number of reasons becomes difficult or impossible.

School maladjustment manifests itself in disturbances in academic performance, behavior and interpersonal influences. Already in the elementary grades, children with similar problems are identified and untimely recognition of their character and nature, the lack of special corrective programs lead not only to a chronic lag in the acquisition of school knowledge, to a decrease in educational motivation, but to various forms of deviant behavior.

These symptoms can be in extreme variants of the norm (accentuation of character, pathocharacterological formation of personality) and borderline disorders (neuroses, neurosis-like states, residual organic disorders (epilepsy, schizophrenia).

It is possible to identify risk factors for the development of school maladjustment that, under certain conditions, can become causes of school failure, but do not fatally predetermine it.

Factors include:

  1. Deficiencies in preparing a child for school, social and pedagogical neglect.
  2. Prolonged and massive deprivation.
  3. Somatic weakness of the child.
  4. Disturbances in the formation of certain mental functions and cognitive processes.
  5. Impaired development of school skills (dyslexia, digraphia, dyscalcumia).
  6. Motor disorders.

Children do not “get used to” the new living conditions with equal success. The study by G. M. Chutkina identified three levels of children’s adaptation to school:

High level of adaptation. The first-grader has a positive attitude towards school and perceives the presented requirements adequately; learns educational material easily; deeply and completely masters the program material; solves complex problems, is diligent, listens carefully to the teacher’s instructions and explanations, carries out assignments without external control; shows great interest in independent study work (always prepare for all lessons); carries out public assignments willingly and conscientiously; occupies a favorable status position in the class.

Average level of adaptation. A first-grader has a positive attitude towards school, visiting it does not cause negative experiences, understands the educational material if the teacher presents it in detail and clearly, assimilates the main content of the curriculum, and independently solves standard problems; concentrated and attentive when performing tasks, instructions, instructions from an adult, but under his control; is concentrated only when he is busy with something interesting to him (preparing for lessons and doing homework almost always); carries out public assignments conscientiously; is friends with many classmates. As a rule, these children experience difficulties in mastering the curriculum.

Low level of adaptation. A first-grader has a negative or indifferent attitude towards school; complaints of ill health are common; violations of discipline are observed; understands the material explained by the teacher in fragments; independent work with the textbook is difficult; shows no interest when completing independent learning tasks; prepares for lessons irregularly; constant monitoring, systematic reminders and encouragement from the teacher and parents are required; maintains efficiency and attention during extended rest breaks; to understand new things and solve problems according to the model, significant educational assistance from the teacher and parents is required; carries out public assignments under control, without much desire, is passive; has no close friends, knows only some of his classmates by first and last names. [Kulagina I.Yu. Developmental psychology./ Child development from birth to 17 years./ Textbook. 3rd ed. - M.: Publishing house URAO, 1997.-176 p.].

A number of authors Kovaleva L.M., Yu.A. Aleksandrovsky identify five subgroups of children in whom the adaptation process proceeds differently.

Subgroup I – “norm”

Based on psychological diagnostic observations and characteristics, it can include children who:

- cope well with the academic load and do not experience significant difficulties in learning;

— successfully interact with teachers and peers, i.e. have no problems in the area of ​​interpersonal relationships;

— do not complain about deteriorating health status – mental and somatic;

- do not exhibit antisocial behavior.

The process of school adaptation in children of this subgroup is generally quite successful. They have high motivation for learning and high cognitive activity.

Subgroup II – “risk group”

(possible occurrence of school maladjustment), requiring psychological support. Children usually cope poorly with the academic load and do not show visible signs of social behavior disorders. Often the area of ​​disadvantage in such children is quite hidden on a personal level; the student’s level of anxiety and tension increases as an indicator of developmental problems. An important signal about the beginning of trouble can be an inadequate indicator of a child’s self-esteem with a high level of school motivation; violations in the sphere of interpersonal relationships are possible. If at the same time the number of diseases increases, this indicates that the body begins to react to the emergence of difficulties in school life due to a decrease in defensive reactions.

Subgroup III – “unstable school maladaptation.

Children of this subgroup are distinguished by the fact that they cannot successfully cope with the academic load, the process of socialization is disrupted, and significant changes in psychosomatic health are observed.

Subgroup IV - “Persistent school maladjustment.”

In addition to signs of school failure, these children have another important and characteristic sign - antisocial behavior: rudeness, hooliganism, demonstrative behavior, running away from home, truancy, aggression, etc. In the most general form, a schoolchild’s deviant behavior is always the result of a violation of the child’s assimilation of social experience, distortion of motivational factors, and a disorder of adapted behavior.

Subgroup V - “Pathological disorders”.

Children have an obvious or pathological deviation in development, unnoticed, manifested as a result of education or deliberately hidden by the child’s parents upon admission to school, as well as acquired as a result of a serious complicated illness.

Such manifestations of pathological conditions include:

- mental (mental development delays of varying degrees in the emotional and volitional sphere, neurosis-like and psychopathic disorders);

— somatic (presence of persistent physical ailments: disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine, digestive systems, vision, etc.)

There are other approaches to classifying forms of maladjustment.

Thus, some authors Andrushchenko T.D., Arakelov E.E. identify four forms of maladjustment: school neurosis, school phobia, didactogenic neuroses, school anxiety.

  1. School neurosis is a fear of school on an unconscious level. Manifests itself in the form of somatic symptoms (vomiting, headache, fever, etc.)
  2. School phobia is a manifestation of an overwhelming fear caused by attending school.
  3. Didactogenic neuroses [Kravtsova E. E. Psychological problems of children’s readiness to study at school. – M., 1991, 89 – 126].

They are caused by improper behavior of the teacher, failures in the organization of teaching. V. A. Sukhomlinsky wrote about this: “I studied school neuroses for several years. The painful reaction of the nervous system to the injustice of the teacher in some children takes on the character of agitation, in others - embitterment, in others - a mania of unfair insults and persecution, in others - feigned carelessness, in others - indifference, extreme depression, in others - fear of punishment, in front of the teacher, in front of school, in sevenths there is antics and clowning, in eighths there is bitterness, sometimes taking on pathological manifestations.”

  1. School anxiety.

Ovcharova R.V. Offers the following classification of forms of school maladjustment, which analyzes the causes of maladjustment.

Ovcharova R.V. Emphasizes that the main reason for school maladaptation in the lower grades is related to the nature of family influence. If a child comes to school from a family where he did not feel the experience of “we,” he will have difficulty entering a new social community—school. An unconscious desire for alienation, non-acceptance of the norms and rules of any community in the name of preserving the unchanged “I” underlies the school maladjustment of children raised in families with an unformed “we” or in families where parents are separated from children by a wall of rejection and indifference.

Diagnosis of school maladjustment

Only a teacher can diagnose school maladaptation at the initial level. To do this, you need to evaluate the lessons as a whole, note which of the children have periodic difficulties in mastering the material, the pace of work, and doing homework.

A teacher may notice the following signs of maladjustment in a child:

  • rapid exhaustion in class and decreased performance (the child spins around a lot, cannot sit at his desk for a long time, yawns, plays with school supplies, cannot repeat what was just discussed in class);
  • increased fatigue (appearance: bright red cheeks, blueness above the upper lip, refusal to play and communicate with classmates, lack of initiative in lessons, aggression towards peers, walking on tiptoes);
  • errors in written work (done out of order, many erasures and corrections, rules for keeping notebooks not followed, homework not submitted on time, letters missing in words);
  • increased anxiety with good academic performance (afraid of answering at the board, doubts one’s abilities, reacts to comments with tears or aggression, fidgets with clothes when answering, makes a lot of hand movements, often blinks or licks lips).

If at least one of the signs often begins to appear, then the teacher is obliged to talk with the parents and involve a school psychologist.

Further examination is as follows:

  1. The psychologist carries out the necessary diagnostic techniques.
  2. Collects and analyzes the received data, criteria for school maladaptation, and, if necessary, talks with the child again.
  3. A student is being examined by a doctor.
  4. The psychologist talks with the teacher, correlating all the results with observations.
  5. The teacher and psychologist convey all the information to parents.

Correction of maladjustment in school-age children

There is no unified method for correcting school maladaptation in school-age children. An individual approach must be taken to each child, because... The factors of school maladaptation and the ways of its correction vary greatly. The child needs qualified help that will simultaneously consider medical, psychological, pedagogical and social aspects.

The main emphasis is on psychological assistance, so a large part of the work is performed by the school psychologist (if necessary, this can be a private psychologist or psychotherapist). He explores in detail the main points associated with the life of a student:

  • studies the child’s social environment and the conditions of his development;
  • assesses the psychophysical development of the student, takes into account individual characteristics;
  • determines the nature of the internal conflict that led to the violation;
  • identifies factors that lead to a crisis situation and the appearance of signs of maladjustment;
  • draws up an individual plan for psychological and pedagogical correction and brings it to the attention of teachers and parents.

A psychologist practices many methods of correction, most often these can be:

  • conversations;
  • art therapy;
  • group training;
  • associative techniques;
  • gaming activities aimed at uniting the class team;
  • exercises to develop mental processes when necessary.

Teachers are also actively involved in corrective measures for a particular child. They create positive conditions for the student’s adaptation: a comfortable and friendly atmosphere in the classroom, a friendly climate in the classroom, and special attention to the child.

Parents should be involved in the child's life to increase the chance of positive dynamics in the development of the disorder. Without their support, the result may be minimal. The family must build a trusting relationship with the child, encourage and help him in all endeavors, and be sure to praise him. All comments should be kept to a minimum or spoken calmly and accurately. Family members should spend time together and engage in some common activity.

Social maladjustment of younger schoolchildren

Social maladjustment of younger schoolchildren

The beginning of schooling leads to a radical change in the social situation of the child’s development. He becomes a “public” subject and now has socially significant responsibilities, the fulfillment of which receives public assessment. During primary school education, the potential of the child’s development as an active subject, learning about the world around him and himself, gaining his own experience of acting in this world, is realized at a qualitatively new level. The child’s entire system of life relationships is rebuilt and is largely determined by how successfully he copes with new demands.

Under favorable socially significant developmental conditions, a junior schoolchild is able to successfully adapt to the school environment.

Unfortunately, in recent years we are increasingly talking about the social maladjustment of younger schoolchildren to school. What are the reasons for such a large number of children of primary school age with disorders of the socialization process?

Children who have not acquired the necessary experience of communicating with adults and peers before school, lack self-confidence, are afraid of not meeting the expectations of adults, experience difficulties adapting to the school community and fear of the teacher. This fear is based on the fear of making a mistake, doing something stupid and being ridiculed. Most of all, such children are afraid to answer at the board. It is at the board that their defenselessness is fully revealed.

Some children are terrified of making a mistake when doing written work. This happens in cases where parents check them pedantically and are very dramatic about mistakes. Even if the parents do not punish the child, psychological punishment is still present. At primary school age, a grade is not just an assessment of a specific result of an activity; it is subjectively perceived by the child as an assessment of his entire personality.

It should be noted that social maladjustment is a reversible process. Therefore, in modern schools there is an urgent question about diagnosing the adaptation of primary school students, determining the types of maladaptation and identifying the reasons that led to the maladjustment of schoolchildren. One of the main tasks of modern teachers working in primary schools and school psychologists is the organization of a socio-pedagogical process that contributes to the restoration of lost social status or the formation of social skills of maladapted younger schoolchildren, reorientation of their social attitudes, and inclusion in new positively oriented relationships. It is very important to do this precisely at primary school age, as the first school period of a child’s life, otherwise conditions arise for a crisis in personality development, and adaptation to a new “stage” of development turns out to be difficult.

Prevention of school maladjustment

Methods for preventing school maladjustment should also be a set of measures. Today it consists of the following measures:

  • compensating classes;
  • special methods of correctional training;
  • social trainings;
  • trainings together with parents and students;
  • special consultations for parents.

The main focus of prevention should be on successful adaptation to the school environment. After all, for every schoolchild this is a big stressful process. Both parents and teachers must work together to help the child pass it. The result should be his positive attitude towards life, towards the educational process, towards teachers and classmates. Then the lessons will be positive, with a creative approach, learning activities will bring joy and satisfaction, and school will no longer be a problem.

The process of adaptation to school will be much easier if a trusting and friendly relationship is established between the child and parents. In this case, any life difficulties will be overcome more successfully, and forms of school maladjustment will not appear.


Primary School

Before a child enters school, he undergoes a psychological, medical, and pedagogical commission, which determines readiness for school, health status, and provides recommendations on the child’s individual development path.

Many parents are afraid of the commission, considering it an insulting event and seeing the risks of diagnosing their child. As a result, they refuse to pass. They have the right, but you need to understand that the commission members work in the interests of the child and family.

In order to prevent maladaptation, you cannot send a child who is not psychologically prepared to school, even if he is 6-7 years old. According to the laws of our country, the maximum age a child can be sent to school is 8 years old. The second option is to identify gaps in the readiness structure in advance and work with the child to prepare him for school.

Younger and older teenagers

Adolescence itself is characterized by personality maladaptation in a broad sense. The teenager is actively learning about himself and looking for his place. The best thing parents can do to prevent school maladaptation is to communicate with the teenager, treat him with respect and understanding, study the characteristics of age and the specifics of reactions.

What else can you do:

  • Do not demand good grades and success in all subjects from your child.
  • Help your teenager understand his interests and abilities and create an individual learning plan.
  • Be lenient with the cognitive decline that is natural for this age, and help with nutrition, joint activities and rest.

Transfer from one institution to another

Changing your usual lifestyle is stressful for any person. Moving from one school to another is double stress for a child, especially if it is combined with a change of place of residence or occurs during transition classes. Joining a team is not an easy task:

  1. Meet and talk with the class teacher. Tell us about your child's characteristics and successes at the old school.
  2. Find out the features and charter of the school, introduce your child to the school in advance.
  3. It is useful to help a student in elementary school find friends - a neighbor at his desk, a member of a circle. Teenagers form groups themselves; there is no need to interfere. But you must always be ready to help and talk to your child.

Transferring from one educational institution to another is an individual event. It is impossible to predict the development of events, since everything depends on the characteristics of the child, school and class. Recommendations should be made for a specific case. The best thing parents can do to improve their child’s adaptation is to contact a local psychologist.

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