Abstract on the topic: “Culture of speech and effectiveness of communication” creative work of students on the topic

Communication culture is a complex collective concept that determines the quality and level of perfection of communication. The culture of communication is considered an inseparable component of the culture of the individual. It characterizes value guidelines and normative postulates, moral models of communication, the essence of the moral and psychological qualities of the subjects of communicative interaction, methods, tools, rules, techniques and forms of communication.

The culture of communication contains a set of practical techniques, mechanisms and rules. Cultivated communication allows an individual not to transfer conflict situations in the professional sphere to the emotional and personal area of ​​interpersonal interactions, to understand the meaning and motivation of the opponent’s actions, to reduce or completely eliminate excessive emotional outburst in relationships.

Speech and culture of communication

In the development and formation of an individual as a personality, speech and culture of communication are important. And the mirror of culture is language, since it reflects the real reality surrounding individuals, the true conditions of its existence, the social consciousness of the people, their national traits, mentality, traditions, customs, morality, moral and value guidelines, worldview and vision of the world.

Language is a kind of treasury or piggy bank of culture. It preserves and protects cultural heritage and values ​​thanks to its components, such as vocabulary, grammar, proverbs, sayings, folklore, literature; and forms of written or spoken language.

One of the most significant indicators of the degree of culture of an individual, his mental activity, and intellectual development is speech. It is one of the core aspects of active human activity in modern society and a way of understanding reality. Speech is one of the types of communicative interaction that society needs for their jointly directed activities in social life, messaging, cognition, and education. It serves as an object of art and enriches the personality spiritually.

In the life of any individual, speech activity occupies one of the most important positions. After all, without it it is almost impossible to master professional skills, general cultural development, and interpersonal interaction. The ability to competently conduct a conversation is one of the most important personality traits as a social phenomenon.

Communicative interaction between individuals simultaneously becomes a socio-psychological connection and a kind of channel for broadcasting messages. The result of the speaker’s verbal communication is the text. The text can be expressed in oral and written forms. Its main characteristics are integrity, coherence and the presence of semantic load. The concept of speech quality, which ensures the effectiveness of communications and characterizes the degree of an individual’s speech culture, is considered no less significant.

A distinction is made between the speech culture of society as a whole and individuals separately. The speech culture of an individual subject is individual, characterized by a directly proportional dependence on the level of erudition in the field of verbal culture of society and demonstrates the ability to use this erudition. It borrows and adopts part of the verbal culture of society, but at the same time it is much broader than this culture. The verbal culture of society is the selection, collection and storage of the best stamps, samples, models, patterns of speech interaction, the formation of literary classics and compliance with the norms of literary speech.

So, considering the psychological nature of communicative interaction, we can draw the following conclusions. Communication is one of the forms of an individual’s mental activity and behavior. Communications are interpersonal relationships between subjects. In the communicative interaction of people, the individual properties of the personality’s psyche, its temperamental characteristics and other psychological and typological traits are manifested. An individual's personality develops only in the process of communication. That is why the correct education of a culture of communication is so important, which consists in mastering the native language and involves mastering language norms, improving the eloquent tools of the language in live verbal interaction.

Speech communication in kindergarten

Modern preschool education places higher demands on children's communication than before. Speech communication in kindergarten has cognitive content, instills literary images of speech, helps maintain dialogue not only with peers, but also with adults and consume cultural content.

The state standard also contains certain requirements that apply to teacher methods that stimulate and develop the speech skills of preschoolers.

It is very important for personal development that a child masters correct speech.

The main line of work of a teacher in the development of children is to help them master oral speech. Already in the preschool period, active speech becomes the main means of communication for a person.

Culture of verbal communication

The culture of a person is most colorfully and naturally expressed in her speech. As a rule, the first idea and opinion about an individual is formed on the basis of the impression that arises as a result of communicative interaction with him from his speech manner. Nurturing a culture of communication is considered in modern society as one of the most important tasks of education, which is associated with the development of the native language. After all, mastery of the entire wealth of the literary language, competent use of its visual and colorful means determine the degree of verbal competence of an individual and is the clearest indicator of his general culture.

High cultural speech lies in the ability to correctly, competently, clearly and expressively convey one’s own thoughts and worldviews through the means of language. It also covers the ability to find simpler, more intelligible formulations, more appropriate means suitable for a particular situation, tools for arguing a position or point of view. Cultivated speech obliges an individual to comply with mandatory norms, techniques and rules, among which the core ones are: content (essence), logic, validity (evidence), persuasiveness (argumentation), clarity (preciseness), intelligibility.

Content (essence) represents the thoughtfulness and maximum information content of the remarks. After all, the art of rhetoric lies precisely in being able to say everything that is necessary, but no more.

Logicity consists of validity, absence of inconsistency and consistency of statements in which the leading theses and expressions are connected and subordinated to a single position, thought.

Evidence (validity) lies in the reliability of the arguments, which must clearly demonstrate to the dialogue partner that the discussed topic or subject of conversation exists in reality and is objective in nature.

Persuasiveness (reasoning) is expressed in the ability to convince a partner and achieve a strong rooting of this belief in his consciousness.

Clarity (clarity) accordingly implies clarity and clarity of speech. Excessively fast speech is usually difficult to understand, and excessively slow speech will only cause irritation. Speech characterized by dullness and inexpressiveness will cause boredom and lead to the death of even the most thoughtful statements.

Clarity lies in the use of terms, concepts, words that will be understandable to the interlocutor.

Formation of a culture of communication

The formation of a culture of communication is considered one of the highest priority areas of education, both in the family and at school. After all, it is the processes of education and upbringing that are focused on the development of the individual as a subject of personal life activity. The culture of pedagogical communication is designed to develop theoretical and practical foundations for the formation of a general culture of communicative interactions among students. And the ability to competently construct one’s own speech, interact with others, and correctly build interpersonal relationships allows parents to effectively instill in their children cultural communication skills.

At the level of the average person, the culture of communication and behavior is understood as a unique model that individuals should emulate. Sometimes a person’s culture is associated with his education, intelligence, intelligence and is qualified as a certain personal property. However, at the level of theory, culture is a specific characteristic of society, expressing the degree of historical development achieved by humanity, determined by the attitude of the individual to the environment and society. Also, many perceive culture as the creative self-expression of the individual and society as a whole.

In turn, there is an understanding of the cultural character of an individual as a set of material, spiritual guidelines and values, characteristics of the degree of its development, creative activity in the production, storage, assimilation and transfer of values. In a broader sense, culture is a stable personal characteristic that covers ideological and axiological aspects and determines its relationship to the environment.

Communication is the process of interconnection and relationship between subjects of society, which can be individuals and social groups.

The need for communicative interaction is inherent not only to people, but also to most living beings. Initially, this need in a baby is similar to the need of animals, but quite soon in the process of development it acquires a human character. Communication among children is closely related, in turn, to understanding what adults want from them.

In the course of communicative interaction, the vital activity of the individual and society is ensured, the structure and internal essence of social subjects is transformed, the individual is socialized and transformed into a personality, as a social entity endowed with consciousness. It is communication that is responsible for collective activity.

The essence of communication culture includes the provision of a certain communication technique responsible for interaction. Moreover, during such interaction, individuals must not only not interfere with each other, but also maintain personal dignity and personal individuality.

A system of personally significant moral guidelines, which have become the internal beliefs and views of an individual, is called a formed culture of communication. An inevitable condition for the effective implementation of cultural communication is considered to be mastery of the means of interpersonal interaction under various life conditions and circumstances of the social environment. Objective indicators of the formation of cultural communications are certain personality traits and her actions, actions that are harmoniously consistent with the requirements of morality, morality, spirituality and etiquette.

The culture of communicative interaction is a complex, diverse process of formation and development of relationships, various contacts between individuals, generated by the needs for mutually directed activities, which includes the exchange of messages, the formation of a unified concept of interconnection, perception and comprehension of another person.

We can identify 6 priority areas, goals and objectives for creating a communication culture, which consist of developing:

  • sociability as an individual stable personality trait;
  • high level of personal relationships;
  • high level of group development;
  • high level of integration of jointly directed activities;
  • academic performance and, as a consequence, social activity in the future;
  • ability to quickly adapt to various types of activities - educational, gaming, professional, etc.

Culture of communication in preschool age

Preschool age is the time when children learn the basic grammatical features of their native language. Children learn to produce simple speech utterances. At this age, it is already necessary to teach children to address adults by name and patronymic, using the pronoun “You”.

Already at this age, you need to work on the purity of pronunciation, teach children to speak at a calm pace, without stretching out the words, but also without speaking in a tongue twister.

When a teacher organizes various joint activities as part of educational activities, children try to adjust their speech, taking into account the content of the material, the rules of the lesson, and watch their words. However, it is important to accustom the child to the culture of speech in normal everyday communication.

A child must have the habit of adhering to ethical standards in any type of activity, including during independent activities. Speech culture has a beneficial effect on the activity of communication between peers during the game and helps to avoid numerous conflicts.

Speech culture and business communication

The lion's share of any manager's work process is taken up by various negotiations, conferences, appointments, and telephone conversations, so it is impossible to do without the ability to interact competently, business communications skills and knowledge of the cultural characteristics of speech.

In addition to everyday business communication, the career growth of many specialists directly depends on the ability to structure a conversation in accordance with the norms of speech culture and the principles of business communicative interaction. Otherwise, the dialogue may be directed in a completely different direction and instead of signing a profitable agreement, you will end up with a meaningless conversation. Unprofessionalism in conducting a business conversation also leads to the fact that the interlocutor will form an unfavorable opinion about the “speaker” and about his business qualifications. This is why you should take acquiring business communications experience and skills very seriously.

It so happened historically that in our time almost no one adheres to the correct construction of phrases during a friendly conversation, few people pay attention to the literacy of speech. Unfortunately, today there is such a tendency in communication that most people during a conversation strive only to convey the general meaning, without paying attention to the correctness of the construction of phrases, or to the emphasis in words, or to the correct pronunciation of these words. If now such a manner of conversation is acceptable in everyday life, then in business etiquette such an approach is absolutely unacceptable.

The success of business communications is influenced by many factors, such as: style of speech, its intonation, facial expression, body position, appearance, etc. That is why the stereotype of communication and the cultural speech of a business person depend on compliance with a number of certain rules, without following which an individual will never not to become an eloquent and skillful speaker. Below are the main ones.

♦ A business person must have a large and varied vocabulary, which will allow him to easily play and manipulate words, giving his speech effectiveness and richness. After all, it is extremely difficult to beautifully express your own point of view or prove the correctness of ideas without a diverse vocabulary.

♦ The structure of speech is also important. You should adhere to the “purity” of speech, which can be diluted with professional terms. It is not recommended to use jargon or unliterary statements in business communications.

♦ Literacy is the most important component of a culture of communication. Phrases must be composed taking into account the grammatical and stylistic rules of speech.

♦ When communicating in business, you should definitely pay attention to your pronunciation and intonation. After all, often others cannot grasp the correct meaning of phrases due to speech defects of the “speaker” or his inability to highlight the most important points using intonation. We should also not forget about the importance of non-verbal components of speech. Incorrect gestures, posture or facial expressions can ruin even the most successful presentation or brilliant speech.

To summarize, we can conclude that the ability to clearly, competently and eloquently express one’s thoughts is absolutely irreplaceable in the modern world of business and professional activity.

How to write a term paper on speech therapy

07.09.2010 179880

These guidelines are compiled to help students gain an understanding of the content and structure of coursework in speech therapy.

Logopedia of pedagogical science that studies anomalies of speech development with normal hearing, explores the manifestations, nature and mechanisms of speech disorders, develops the scientific basis for overcoming and preventing them means of special training and education.

The subject of speech therapy as a science is speech disorders and the process of training and education of persons with speech disorders.

The object of study is a person suffering from a speech disorder.

The main task of speech therapy as a science is the study, prevention and elimination of various types of speech disorders.

Coursework in speech therapy is a student's scientific and experimental research. This type of educational activity, provided for by the educational and professional program and curriculum, contributes to the acquisition of skills in working with literature, analyzing and summarizing literary sources in order to determine the range of insufficiently studied problems, determining the content and methods of experimental research, processing skills and qualitative analysis of the results obtained. The need to complete coursework in speech therapy is due to the updating of knowledge concerning the content, organization, principles, methods and techniques of speech therapy work.

As a rule, during their studies, students must write two term papers - theoretical and practical.

The first course work should be devoted to the analysis and synthesis of general and specialized literature on the chosen topic. Based on this analysis, it is necessary to justify and develop a method of ascertaining (diagnostic) experiment.

In the second course work, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the results obtained during the ascertaining experiment, as well as determine the directions and content of speech therapy work, and select adequate methods and techniques of correction.

So, let’s present the general requirements for the content and design of coursework in speech therapy.

The initial and most important stage of working on a course project is the choice of a topic, which is either proposed by the supervisor or chosen by the student independently from a list of topics that are consistent with the areas of scientific research of the department.

Each topic can be modified, considered in different aspects, but taking into account a theoretical and practical approach. Having chosen a topic, the student needs to think through in detail its specific content, areas of work, practical material, etc., which should be reflected both in the formulation of the topic and in the further construction of the study. It should be recalled that the chosen topic may not only have a purely theoretical orientation, for example: “Dysarthria. Characteristics of the defect”, “Classification of dysgraphia”, but also take into account the practical significance of the problem under consideration, for example: “Speech therapy work on speech correction for dysarthria”. It should also be taken into account that when formulating a topic, excessive detail should be avoided, for example: “Formation of prosodic components of speech in preschoolers of the sixth year of life attending a preschool institution for children with severe speech impairments.”

The course work includes such mandatory parts as: introduction, three chapters, conclusion, bibliography and appendix.

The text of the term paper begins with the title page . An example of its design can be seen here.

Then the content of the work is given, in which the names of chapters, paragraphs, and sections are formulated in strict accordance with the content of the thesis. An example of its design can be seen here.

In the text, each subsequent chapter and paragraph begins on a new page. At the end of each chapter, the materials are summarized and conclusions are formulated.

The introduction reveals the relevance of the problem under consideration in general and the topic being studied in particular; the problem, subject, object, and purpose of the study are defined. In accordance with the goal and hypothesis, objectives and a set of research methods aimed at achieving the objectives must be defined.

The relevance of the topic lies in reflecting the current level of pedagogical science and practice, meeting the requirements of novelty and usefulness.

When defining the research problem, it is important to indicate what practical tasks it will help to implement in training and educating people with speech pathology.

The object of research is understood as certain aspects of pedagogical reality, perceived through a system of theoretical and practical knowledge. The ultimate goal of any research is to improve this object.

The subject of research is some part, property, element of an object, i.e. the subject of research always indicates a specific aspect of the object that is to be studied and about which the researcher wants to gain new knowledge. An object is a part of an object.

You can give an example of the formulation of the object, subject and problem of research:

– The object of the study is the speech activity of preschool children with phonetic-phonemic speech disorders.

– The subject of the study is the features of intonation speech of children with phonetic-phonemic speech disorders.

– The research problem is to determine effective directions for speech therapy work on the formation of intonation expressiveness of speech in the system of correctional intervention.

The purpose of the study contributes to the specification of the object being studied. The goal of any research is to solve a specific problem. The goal is specified in tasks taking into account the subject of research.

The research objectives are formulated in a certain sequence, which determines the logic of the research. The research objectives are set on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the problem and an assessment of the state of its solution in practice.

The first chapter is an analysis of literary sources, which examines the state of this problem in historical and modern aspects, and presents the most important theoretical principles that formed the basis of the study.

When writing the first chapter, you should pay attention to the fact that the text of the course work must be written in a scientific style. When presenting scientific material, it is necessary to comply with the following requirements:

– Specificity – a review of only those sources that are necessary to disclose only a given topic or solve only a given problem;

– Clarity – which is characterized by semantic coherence and integrity of individual parts of the text;

– Logicality – which provides for a certain structure of presentation of the material;

– Reasoning – evidence of thoughts (why this and not otherwise);

– Precision of wording, excluding ambiguous interpretation of the authors’ statements.

A literary review of the state of the problem being studied should not be reduced to a consistent presentation of literary sources. It should present a generalized description of the literature: highlight the main directions (currents, concepts, points of view), analyze in detail and evaluate the most fundamental works of representatives of these directions.

When writing a work, the student must correctly use literary materials, make references to the authors and sources from which the results of scientific research are borrowed. Failure to provide required references will reduce your coursework grade.

As a rule, in coursework on speech therapy, references to literary sources are formatted as follows: the number of the cited source in the general list of references is placed in square brackets. For example: General speech underdevelopment is a speech pathology in which there is a persistent lag in the formation of all components of the language system: phonetics, vocabulary and grammar [17].

When using quotations, in square brackets, in addition to indicating the source number, the page number from which this excerpt is taken is indicated, for example: Speech rhythm is based on a physiological and intellectual basis, since, firstly, it is directly related to the rhythm of breathing. Secondly, being an element that performs a communicative function, “correlates with meaning, i.e. controlled intellectually” [23, P.40].

However, course work should not be of a purely abstract nature, so you should not abuse the unreasonable abundance of citations. Quoting should be logically justified, convincing and used only when really necessary.

In the second chapter , devoted to experimental research, the organization should be described and the program of the ascertaining experiment should be presented. The survey methodology, as a rule, consists of a description of several series of tasks, with detailed instructions, visual and lexical material, the procedure for completing tasks by experiment participants, and scoring criteria. This chapter also provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results obtained.

When analyzing the results of an experiment, it is necessary to use a scoring system. Examples of various criteria for quantitative and qualitative assessment are presented in the following works:

– Glukhov V.P. Formation of coherent speech in preschool children with general speech underdevelopment. - M.: Arkti, 2002. - 144 p.

– Fotekova T.A. Test methodology for diagnosing oral speech of primary schoolchildren. - M.: Arkti, 2000. - 56 p.

– Levchenko I.Yu. Pathopsychology: Theory and practice. - M.: Academy, 2000. - 232 p.

In order to visually present the results obtained during the experimental study, it is recommended to use tables, graphs, diagrams, etc. Histograms can be used in a variety of ways - columnar, cylindrical, planar, volumetric, etc. An example of the design of tables, figures, and histograms can be found here.

The third chapter provides a rationale for the proposed methods and techniques and reveals the content of the main stages of correctional work.

The conclusion contains a summary of the material presented and the main conclusions formulated by the author.

The bibliography must contain at least 25 sources. The list includes bibliographic information about the sources used in preparing the work. An example of its design can be seen here.

In the application you can present bulky tables or illustrations, examination protocols, observation records, products of activity (drawings, written works of children), notes from speech therapy classes, etc.

The volume of one course work must be at least 30 pages of typewritten text.

In general, coursework in speech therapy is the basis for a future thesis, in which the study of the begun problem can be continued, but from the standpoint of a different approach or a comparative analysis of the disorders being studied in different age categories of people with different types of speech disorders.

The content and format of theses in speech therapy can be found here.


1. How to write a term paper on speech therapy: Methodological recommendations. Educational and methodological manual / Comp. Artemova E.E., Tishina L.A. / Ed. Orlova O.S. – M.: MGOPU, 2008. – 35 p.

2. Research work of students in the system of higher professional pedagogical education (specialty 031800 - Speech therapy). Methodological recommendations for completing the thesis / Compiled by. L.V. Lopatina, V.I. Lipakova, G.G. Golubeva. - St. Petersburg: Publishing house of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after. A. I. Herzen, 2002. - 140 p.

Communication culture and etiquette

The culture of communication and behavior today has its own generally accepted principles:

  • accuracy of speech, which is the ability to clearly and distinctly express one’s position;
  • understandability, which obliges the information to be intelligible and accessible to the understanding of the average native speaker;
  • purity of speech, which is expressed in the absence of jargon or unnecessary filler words;
  • expressiveness of speech is to maintain the attention of listeners and their interest throughout the conversation;
  • appropriateness, which manifests itself in accordance with the objectives of the statements and the situation.

Speech etiquette implies the ethical aspect of the culture of communications and generally accepted norms of communication. It contains speech formulas of gratitude, addresses or greetings, requests or questions, the appropriateness of addressing “you” or “you”. The choice of one or another formulation depends on the social status of the individuals who are in the process of communicative interaction, the nature of their relationships, and the official status of the situation. In formal situations, when several people are involved in a conversation, even if the interlocutors know each other well, you should address the interlocutors as “you”.

The culture of business communication combines 3 stages: the beginning of the conversation, its main part and the end of the conversation.

The conversation begins with an introduction, if the interlocutor is unfamiliar. The following formulations are suitable for this: “let me get to know you”, “let me get to know you”, “I would like to …”, etc. If the interlocutors know each other, then the conversation begins with a greeting. In accordance with generally accepted norms of etiquette, a man should be the first to greet a woman, a younger individual should be the first to greet an older person, and a person who occupies a lower level in the social hierarchy should be the first to greet an individual who occupies a higher one.

The main part of communication begins after meeting and greeting, when the conversation begins, depending on the circumstances. A compliment addressed to yourself must be accepted with dignity. If you receive a compliment, you should show that you are pleased with it and appreciate the kind attitude towards yourself. However, it's best not to be flirty or challenge the compliment.

Communicative interaction requires a topic for conversation that all participants in the process agree to support. During the conversation, you should avoid communicating on personal topics; you should not talk about your affairs or the affairs of your loved ones. It is also better not to allow the spread of false, unverified information or gossip. The use of hints that will be understandable only to individual participants in the process is not allowed. You need to speak in a language that your interlocutors understand. There is no need to interrupt your partners, try to give them hints, or complete their lines for them.

The end of communication is characterized by the use of stable and generally accepted “parting language”, such as: “all the best to you,” “goodbye,” etc.

What is etiquette?

We understand the term “etiquette” as a set of rules concerning the behavior by which a person shows his attitude towards others. This affects areas such as the way a person speaks, greetings, clothing and mannerisms. If someone follows the rules of etiquette pedantically, this does not make the person highly cultured, because etiquette is not just rules that should be manifested externally.

True culture comes from the heart of a person and is based on how he truly relates to the people around him.

The same applies to children. Their culture of communication should also be based on respect for adults and peers, and a friendly attitude towards them. Also, the child must have a developed vocabulary that would allow him to produce the necessary forms of address. This also includes skills for polite behavior in everyday life and in public places.

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