1. Universal ethical and psychological norms and principles

It is impossible to imagine a social mechanism without the principles of communication on which certain norms, patterns and rules are based. If they are not observed, then all interaction between people will be reduced to the satisfaction of personal needs, which is an absolute degradation of society. This article examines in detail some of the nuances of relationships between people.


Ethical principles of communication can be determined by the culture of speech. According to the requirements of this concept, moral standards are put forward, behavioral manners in specific situations and various formulas of courtesy and politeness are assessed by rules. A person who observes the basic principles of communication, but violates its ethical norms, is often deceptive and hypocritical. The highly moral behavior of a person who does not use basic rules of decency in his life will never inspire confidence in others.

We can conclude that concepts such as communication ethics and good manners are worth studying together. The most common principles of etiquette and moral standards often go side by side with specific dialogue algorithms: greeting and farewell, request and gratitude, etc. Unlike speech etiquette, which is used everywhere (congratulations, gratitude, greetings, sympathy), we remember the principles and norms of decency much less often.

Varieties and relationship with culture

Courtesy, friendliness, patience and restraint in communicating with others - these are signs of a high internal culture. A person who owns it feels confident in society, easily makes contact and can maintain small talk on any topic. His speech is meaningful, precise, expressive, and grammatically correct. Therefore, it is understandable to the interlocutors. Such speech is usually called normalized, that is, it corresponds to the accepted rules of pronunciation.

The forms of implementation of speech norms of etiquette depend to some extent on the cultural and linguistic environment of a particular society: the formulas of respectful address to elders in age or status, greetings and farewells come from ancient ritual practices and are of particular importance for representatives of a given people. A person who is not familiar with the peculiarities of national etiquette may find himself in an unpleasant situation and appear as a disrespectful ignoramus.

Thus, culture and human speech are in direct relationship. Compliance with the rules of polite communication is impossible without knowledge of ethical and moral standards recognized in society.

There are several styles of verbal ethics. Among them:

  1. Business. It is used at official events where participants do not know each other: conferences, negotiations, exhibitions, etc.
  2. Everyday. The most common type of etiquette, understandable and reproduced by every intelligent, educated person. Suitable for any standard situations.
  3. Rare types of etiquette (religious, military, diplomatic). It is studied and applied in isolated social or professional groups.

Principles of ethics in communication

There is a so-called golden rule, familiar to everyone since childhood: treat others the way you want to be treated. It applies to absolutely any life situation. We can say that many ethical principles of communication are based on this rule: altruistic, norms of virtue, demanding of oneself and others, the law of equality and justice, etc.

Thanks to the principles of open and sincere communication, a high degree of trust arises, without which contact is not possible. Trusting close relationships cannot be built without honesty, truthfulness, kindness and respect for the people around you. This can also include care, politeness, good manners, etc. The principles of correct communication are inextricably linked with the quality of speech itself. It must contain logic, expediency, literacy, as well as conciseness and meaningfulness at the same time. As for brevity, it all depends on personal desires and preferences. To some, overly extended praises will seem boring, while others will not understand the idea that they tried to convey in a more concise form.

— The golden rule of conversation.


There is a so-called golden rule of communication, the essence of which is that you should treat others the way you would like to be treated by others. This rule can be extended to any situation. Thus, the following basic ethical principles of communication are considered:

1) altruism (readiness to sacrifice something for the sake of another),

2) virtue (establishing relationships with others from the standpoint of goodness and goodness),

3) exactingness (making demands on oneself and others to fulfill a moral duty, responsibility),

4) justice,

5) parity (equality between people), etc.

Thanks to goodwill, sincerity and openness, trust arises between people, without which communication is impossible. Communication also reveals the following moral qualities of a person: honesty, truthfulness, kindness, respectful attitude towards others, caring for others, politeness, etc.

Also, ethical principles of communication affect the content of the speech itself. It must be logical, understandable to both parties, polite, meaningful, truthful and expedient. Everyone decides for themselves whether brevity is the sister of talent. To some, short speech seems unnatural (this depends only on the person’s personal characteristics).

Types of ethical standards

The basic principles of communication are divided into mandatory and recommended. The first includes the famous medical concept - “do no harm.” In order for communication to be mutually pleasant and effective, you should not resort to insults when there are differences in points of view, or humiliate your opponent. It is necessary to exclude such behavioral tactics as harshness and rudeness from interpersonal relationships. To interact well with people, it is helpful to maintain self-esteem, modesty, and respect for others. The connection between ethical standards and motives for communication is quite obvious:

  1. Emotionally positive motives include bringing joy, satisfying the interlocutor’s need for respect, understanding and love, as well as interest.
  2. Neutral motives are often the goals of information transfer.
  3. Emotionally negative ones include indignation at an ignoble act and an expression of anger at the unfair outcome of a situation.

All these motives are inextricably linked with high internal moral standards. It is worth noting that actions dressed in an ethical form, but caused by low motives (to deceive, condemn, etc.) are not ethical.

Etiquette between a man and a woman

In the presence of women, guys are obliged to behave in such a way as to make a favorable impression on the girl. The etiquette of a man towards a woman has its own characteristics, which are recommended to be remembered and regularly put into practice.

  1. Outside the premises, the gentleman walks to the left of his companion. Only military personnel can march on the right.
  2. If a woman greets an acquaintance, her companion should do the same, even in a situation where the person is unfamiliar to him.
  3. A gentleman opens the car door for his lady, and also holds the door, letting her pass first when entering or leaving the premises.
  4. A guy can smoke a cigarette only with the girl’s permission.
  5. You should not complain to the lady you like about life and talk about problems - she may consider the representative of the stronger sex a loser.
  6. Give tactful compliments to your companion's appearance or outfit when you meet.
  7. It is unacceptable to touch a woman without her consent, the exception being the situation when you need to help her get off a bus or car.

The rules of etiquette with a girl show a man in a favorable light. Next to a well-mannered representative of the stronger sex who knows how to present himself, the lady will feel safe and will quickly make closer contact. A gentleman's observance of the rules of good manners when communicating with a girl is an indicator of his decency, high social status and prospects.

Ethical standards and the consequences of non-compliance

When the ethical principles of verbal communication are absent or partially observed, this can manifest itself in human rudeness, insult, and opposition to others. Indecent behavioral manners are expressed in the condemnation of actions unacceptable for any individual, and the widespread imposition of one’s own opinion. This can lead to misunderstandings and damage on the part of the two parties involved. It is noteworthy that a highly moral person, driven by ethical motives, experiences discomfort not only when he involuntarily does something wrong, but also when he sees negative manifestations around him. Failure to comply with basic norms of behavior in communication can lead to misunderstandings, conflicts and even a breakdown in relationships between participants in communication.

Business Communication and Ethics

Along with the general principles of communication, we can highlight ethical standards that relate exclusively to the business world. The main feature of contacts in a business environment is the presence of many formalities. As for moral standards, they are the same for all spheres of communication.

Any organization needs to strive to improve behavioral principles: developing ethical standards, creating special commissions for training and instilling good manners in employees. Thanks to this, the moral atmosphere of the entire enterprise will improve, which will lead to increased loyalty of employees, the implementation of the right moral choice when making decisions, and strengthening the reputation of the company.

Despite the importance of cultural behavior, there is no absolute criterion and no person playing the role of the highest judge and preacher of the ultimate truth. If you want to live in a highly moral society, start with yourself: praise others, and make complaints about yourself. Don’t dwell on your employees’ failures, but learn from your mistakes.

Watch your behavior, and then you will see how the world will change for the better. The basic norms and principles of communication in the field of business relationships cover not only interpersonal connections, but also the vertical of office contacts, for example, “subordinate-manager”. And also horizontal - the relationship between two employees with the same position.

The basics of ethical standards and rules are necessary in all areas of life, be it communication with friends, colleagues, or family. These simple rules of interaction help to build harmonious relationships with people; you can always count on outside support, since those around you want to do business with a well-mannered and tactful person.

In order to cultivate spiritual traits in society and preserve the moral heritage, one should first of all pay attention to oneself. If each person makes a small contribution to the ethical development of the world, then it will certainly change for the better.

Communication in everyday life

It is easier for a well-mannered person to live in society. He can easily make the necessary impression on his interlocutor, easily adapts to any team, and knows how to build interpersonal connections, which is important for successful career growth. Every representative of the stronger sex can easily master male etiquette. Good manners are always appropriate; they determine a person’s cultural level and personal potential.

Gentlemen must adhere to behavioral norms during negotiations, on dates, when corresponding on social networks, at meetings with friends, demonstrating a filigree command of the culture of communication. What are the rules of good manners for men? They depend on his location and situation.

In public transport

When entering a metro, bus or tram, you must not linger at the doors, creating crowds. Be sure to give up your seat to the elderly, disabled, pregnant women and women with small children. While in the middle of the vehicle, start moving towards the exit early, 1-2 stops before arriving at your destination. Do not take the trouble to remove your bag or backpack from your shoulder so as not to disturb other passengers.

In the shop

Basic rules of communication with people must be observed in public places. This applies to various retail outlets and stores. How to behave to show good manners:

  • Before entering, let customers exit the premises;
  • do not touch with your hands products sold without special packaging: bakery products, confectionery assortment, sausages, vegetables and fruits;
  • do not try to get to the checkout by bypassing the line;
  • When talking with sellers, consultants or cashiers, do not forget about politeness, speak calmly and without arrogance;
  • handle the goods you take for trying on carefully;
  • If the proposed model of clothing or shoes does not suit you or you do not like, thank the seller and politely refuse the purchase, without describing the shortcomings of the outlet and assortment.

In friends company

There are certain limitations in communication even with the closest comrades. The etiquette of talking with real friends suggests that the communication will be pleasant for both parties, informative and unobtrusive. No one is immune from quarrels and conflicts, but the main thing is that both loved ones strive for their successful resolution.

To maintain and strengthen friendship, you should follow the following rules for communicating with friends:

  • help with deeds and advice, sometimes sacrificing your own interests;
  • maintain some distance in the relationship - your friend may have personal space that should not be encroached upon;
  • keep his friendly secrets as if they were your own;
  • invite to holidays and share not only sorrows, but also joys;
  • comply with agreements and keep promises made;
  • clarify all misunderstandings immediately, without accumulating grievances.

Appreciate friends who can offer constructive criticism about your appearance or actions.


Etiquette in communication and behavior must also be demonstrated if you are invited to a party. When going on a visit, it is not customary to be late by more than a quarter of an hour or not to arrive at all when you are really expected. Do not come without trivial gifts - this is bad form. For the lady of the house, bring a box of sweets or a modest bouquet; it is appropriate to give a man an alcoholic drink, and a child a toy. When communicating in a company, you should not constantly look at your watch - this may offend the hosts and interlocutors, who will think that you are bored in their company. When visiting, behave decently and do not overdo it with alcohol.

More about business communication

There are several principles and rules of communication in a business environment, adherence to which will make your interaction with colleagues and partners more successful:

  1. The ability to empathize and put oneself in another person’s place, that is, empathy.
  2. Acceptance of another employee, regardless of his goals and views, showing goodwill.
  3. Preserving your individuality when communicating with other people, that is, authenticity.
  4. The ability to clearly express your thoughts and answer questions honestly, to be specific.
  5. The courage to make decisions, to offer your own options for getting out of the situation - initiative.
  6. Directness in actions and words, that is, spontaneity.
  7. The belief that sincere relationships improve interactions between people - openness.
  8. The ability to express your thoughts and emotions. Accepting emotional expressions from people around you. The ability not to hurt their feelings.
  9. The ability to extract experience from various life situations, to soberly perceive criticism, but to be the author of one’s own assessment of oneself (self-knowledge).
  10. Willingness to provide assistance at any time, high degree of involvement in the situation.
  11. Responsibility for your decisions and actions.

Communication Norms (page



3 SPEECH COMMUNICATION NORMS…………………………………………………………………. 21


This course work examines social, psychological and speech norms of communication. The object of my research is the correct communicative behavior of a person in society.

The topic has been repeatedly considered by many authors, not only from the point of view of philology, but also from the point of view of psychology and sociology. I believe that this problem has already been studied in sufficient detail, but the norms are constantly changing, and there is no consensus on them. Many books are devoted to communication norms and speech etiquette, since compliance or non-compliance with these norms has a huge impact on a person’s position in society.

The novelty of this study is that these communication norms have rarely been considered together before. Usually they are all studied separately.

The purpose of my research is to derive the basic rules necessary for successful communication, to analyze the features of social and psychological norms, speech etiquette, the use of the correct forms of words and the correct stress, the ability to behave during a conversation and some other signs of verbal and nonverbal communications.

I am going to explore communication norms based on literature on this topic in the field of linguistics and psychology, compare modern features of human behavior in society and features that existed before, analyze speech etiquette in different countries and identify the main differences.


Human communication in any country necessarily takes place under conditions of social control, and therefore is subject to certain norms and rules established in a given society. Society develops, as social norms, a specific system of behavior patterns that it accepts, approves, cultivates and expects from everyone in the relevant situation. Their violation includes mechanisms of social control (disapproval, condemnation, punishment), which ensures the correction of behavior deviating from the norm. The existence and acceptance of norms is evidenced by the unambiguous reaction of others to someone’s action that differs from the behavior of everyone else.

Etiquette represents the core of the culture of communication, a model of communicative behavior, so I want to talk a little about the development of etiquette (in particular, speech), from antiquity to modern times.

A number of researchers attribute the conscious cultivation of rules that determine external forms of behavior - etiquette - to the period of antiquity (Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome). The rules of everyday behavior only in the most general form oriented a person towards the manifestation of his personal virtues. Behavioral norms did not indicate how to act in specific situations, but gave only a general direction of activity, giving everyone maximum freedom to choose behavior.

At the same time, ideas about courtesy (the moral prototype of what later came to be called manners) were also formed. According to Aristotle’s concept, it is of three kinds: “The first kind is in circulation: for example, in the way one addresses everyone one meets and greets them by extending one’s hand. The second is when they come to the aid of anyone in need. And finally, the third type of courtesy is when they are hospitable to table guests.”

In the Middle Ages, etiquette appears to us in a completely different way, when it is formed and exists in its classical form. Most researchers of the history of culture attribute the emergence of etiquette as an established normative system to this time.

Medieval society in Western Europe was strictly hierarchized. The social consciousness of that era represented it as consisting of three categories - “praying, fighting and working.” But gradually the class of feudal lords began to expand at the expense of common warriors (knights). By the 11th century. In Western Europe, a special class developed - knighthood, which in the XII-XV centuries. reached its peak. The knights themselves considered themselves “the color of the world,” the highest stratum of society, which created its own way of life, its own code of morals and manners. They developed special values ​​that allowed them to separate themselves from the ignoble, commoners. XIV-XV centuries is called the age of chivalry, and for this, indeed, there is every reason, since at this time chivalry was the final way of life and, finally, as a certain mentality and culture.

Etiquette set standards and canons not only for behavior, but also for the entire way of life of the nobility, bringing it to a “common denominator”: it was necessary to “behave like everyone else,” and “live like everyone else,” and so that “everything was like everyone else.” It permeated all spheres of life of the upper class, literally regulating the life of the court down to the smallest detail; it represented a very complex, detailed and branched system of norms and values, often multi-valued and confusing, which was impossible to master without special training.

In the modern era, etiquette developed on the basis of a new value system, the main ones of which were the principles of individualism and utility. Communication also depended on this.

Modern speech etiquette has become simpler and more democratic, as the division into classes has become less obvious, but the norms of communication have not become less defined. Almost our entire life is about meeting and communicating with many people. And the mood, the relationship with people, and the results of our work depend on how these meetings proceed.

In the broad sense of the word, speech etiquette characterizes almost any successful act of communication. Therefore, speech etiquette is associated with the so-called postulates of speech communication, which make the interaction of communication participants possible and successful.

Speech etiquette, in particular, includes words and expressions used by people to say goodbye, requests, apologies, forms of address accepted in various situations, intonation features that characterize polite speech, etc. For the culture of each country, speech etiquette is individual. For example, in some cultures it is customary to complain about difficulties and problems, in others it is not customary. In some cultures, talking about your successes is acceptable, in others it is not at all.

Using examples of speech etiquette from different countries, you can understand how obvious the border between the cultures of these countries is.

Basic qualities of a business person

You can also highlight the basic principles of effective communication that every business person should have. These include:

  • work activity – creativity, initiative, love of work, diligence, ability to accept responsibility;
  • sociability, friendliness, sensitivity and politeness towards people;
  • in relation to oneself - modesty, self-discipline and the ability to self-criticize.

Psychological properties important for business communication include the following:

  • high but adequate self-esteem;
  • creative potential;
  • the ability to quickly make adequate and effective decisions;
  • the ability to speak to people in their language, insight;
  • the ability to make and maintain useful business contacts;
  • a useful habit of keeping your word;
  • the ability to complete the work started;
  • the ability to connect with people, hard work and resilience.

The following social skills are also required to survive in the business world:

  • insight that will help you feel the situation and, based on it, establish contact;
  • stimulate the partner’s speech activity;
  • the ability to psychologically accurately determine the end point of communication;
  • correctly predict your partner’s reaction;
  • keep the initiative of the conversation in your hands, but at the same time tune in to the emotional tone of the interlocutor;
  • provoke the emotional reactions you want from your partner;
  • be able to overcome psychological barriers;
  • correspond to the emotional state of the interlocutor or business partner;
  • set goals and achieve them through mobilization.

Why do we need business ethics?

If we talk about business ethics and ethics in general, we cannot help but pay attention to and discuss the topic of speech culture.

Knowledge of psychology and the rules of communication plays a significant role in building business relationships, as well as in the interaction of colleagues and work partners. If you have an idea of ​​how to behave in a given environment, then, most likely, you will avoid many of the mistakes that are common to entrepreneurs. In order for your business to be successful, you need to thoroughly study the characteristics of the personal qualities that are necessary for management activities. Patterns of human behavior, opportunities for developing entrepreneurial potential, the psychology of working relationships, as well as technology for the survival of a business person in a competitive environment.

The subject of the study of ethics is the motives of a person’s actions, character and actions. In the business sphere, these are relationships between partners, as well as the reasons for success or lack thereof in personal activities.

Business Communication Norms

No one has canceled etiquette at work either. When communicating with colleagues, partners, and clients, you should adhere to the norms of speech culture in order to show your good side. What are the rules of conversational etiquette and conduct in business?

  1. Maintaining subordination in the workplace is the main condition for successful communication between managers and subordinates.
  2. Be punctual – come to work on time, don’t be late for important meetings.
  3. If the company has introduced a dress code, be sure to follow its rules. Your clothing should always be clean and tidy, regardless of your position.
  4. Do not flaunt your emotions - know how to hide them in order to show yourself as a responsible and decent person.
  5. A handshake is an expression of respect for partners and employees. When meeting and leaving, as well as after concluding a profitable deal, always shake hands with your opponent.
  6. Conduct the conversation in a calm tone. Do not use jargon or obscene expressions, speak competently, briefly and succinctly. Don't make excuses and boldly defend your position.
  7. Listen carefully to your interlocutor, listen to the opinions of your colleagues when making decisions, take into account not only your personal interests, but also those of others.

Knowing the basic rules of etiquette, a person will not experience difficulties with communication. His place in society will always be central, and his personality will always be respected.

You may be interested in: Psychological personality types of a person Handwriting and character of a person Life after a divorce from her husband: how to come to your senses


At first glance, it may seem that in ordinary life careful adherence to the norms of decency is not so important, that only active people are faced with ethics and principles of communication, in particular. But sooner or later the understanding comes that a successful conversation and pleasure from it is impossible without observing the basics of ethics. The key point when communicating is maintaining parity, that is, accepting your partner’s interests, recognizing your equality to each other and maintaining a relaxed and easy atmosphere. Oddly enough, every person does not immediately realize the rule of parity - for some, the awareness of the need for this principle comes in childhood and is laid down by their parents, while for others they have to figure everything out with their own mind. The moral and ethical principles that a person observes are a litmus test of his unique qualities and level of development. They are the basis for the manner of speech, attitude towards opponents and interlocutors, and the key needs that are inherent in a particular person.

Components of moral health and principles of pedagogical communication

In the formation of the above principles, the main role is played by the so-called components of moral health, namely moral beliefs, traits, habits, abilities and actions. If for some reason a person has a high cultural level, then he is more likely to struggle with his negative inclinations, which will certainly affect the quality of his contacts with other people. Humanity is the main motive inherent in a person who observes ethical standards. Such a subject empathizes, sympathizes, shows kindness, mercy and decency. A person who interacts with a humane person feels significant and important to the interlocutor.

The basic rules and principles of communication include:

  • showing mutual respect for each other;
  • democratization and humanization of relations;
  • tolerance, social justice and tolerance;
  • objective and unbiased attitude towards the interlocutor;
  • respecting boundaries and recognizing the personal dignity of each person;
  • honesty in relationships;
  • acceptance and understanding of the interests of the interlocutor.

If you begin to regularly use these simple norms and principles of communication with children and adults, you will soon notice how your level of interpersonal interaction has increased. You will also learn to better understand people and play out scenarios of possible developments in your head.


Ethical standards and rules of decency are constantly changing. These processes do not depend on our desires; rather, we must obey the changed reality. To the greatest extent, changes in communication norms depend on changes in cultural values, public opinion, upbringing, and a person’s social circle.

Changes in etiquette rules

In the most general sense, the rules of etiquette are a unified form of behavior. They should not be confused with ethical standards; knowledge of etiquette, adherence to rules - has never prevented human meanness, betrayal, and susceptibility to all mortal sins. The meaning of etiquette rules is to formalize the rules of communication. The emergence of etiquette is associated with the symbolism of ritual rites. Knowledge of the smallest details of the ritual, strict adherence to the rules is a sign of belonging to high society.

The rules of etiquette have evolved over centuries; unified forms of behavior are characteristic of any developed society. Usually we mean European rules by etiquette, although the norms of the Chinese imperial court were strikingly different from them, just like the Japanese or Caucasian rules.

Compliance with the rules of etiquette is inextricably linked with the class stratification of society; as it decreases, etiquette loses its meaning. In some circles (for example, in diplomatic communication), the rules of etiquette are strictly observed, although in a truncated form. It is quite difficult to imagine a modern aristocrat who follows etiquette around the clock, although at official receptions he is forced to follow all the rules and is well acquainted with them.

Many rules of etiquette now seem anachronistic (obligatory return visit, bending certain corners of a business card, strict rules for using three dozen cutlery), others evoke genuine respect (hygienic rules, rules for addressing a woman, communicating with others).

Perverted rules of etiquette apply to all levels of society. So, some young people have their own norms and rules of communication. It is considered decent to drink beer from a bottle, speak obscenities, and behave aggressively. Failure to comply with these norms pushes a person out of the social circle, just like the outdated cut of clothes. A significant contribution to changing the norms and rules of communication was made by the democratization of society, the decline in the level of culture, and the transformation of cultural values. A striking example is the influence of feminism, which regards basic politeness with a woman as sexual harassment.

Communication norms - adapt or fight

It seems that the true norms and rules of communication are associated with the ethical component of human relationships. They are based on mutual respect and understanding of the value of any individual. These feelings are rarely innate; family and school, while formally promoting ethical postulates, often refute them in real affairs.

Such upbringing directly implies adherence to double standards, which is typical for many. According to normal ethical concepts, communication with superiors, subordinates, people of a different social circle, nationality should be equally polite and even. An exception (for the good) may be close people.

A well-mannered person can flare up and lose his temper, but this will not manifest itself in rudeness, rudeness, insults, or aggression. Unfortunately, even among public people, government officials, and politicians, we see a lot of opposite examples. Even when trying to enter a certain circle, it is not necessary to follow such norms.

Since the success of a business directly depends on communication, many companies are trying to create their own rules of business etiquette. Most of these homegrown attempts repeat and parody the rules of European etiquette, explaining who should greet first and enter the elevator. The American rule “Smile” always takes center stage, although sincere serious interest in a person can endear him to you more than a meaningless smile.

An unshakable set of rules similar to etiquette does not yet exist (if this is even possible). It’s easier to say what should be avoided: a dismissive attitude towards the interlocutor, rude language, demanding privileges for oneself, bias, boasting, ill-considered promises, intrusive interest in personal affairs, unnecessary advice, unfounded criticism.

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