5 most famous psychologists in the world that everyone should know about

Interest in the science of the soul, which is how the word “psychology” is translated, arose among humanity many centuries ago. And until now it has not faded away, but on the contrary, it is flaring up with renewed vigor. At the same time, over a long period of time, famous psychologists have repeatedly changed, developed and supplemented scientific thought about the inner world of man. Over many centuries, they have written a huge number of monographs, articles, and books on this topic. And of course, famous psychologists, exploring the nuances and subtleties of the science of the soul, made incredible discoveries in it, which are of great practical importance even today. Surnames such as Freud, Maslow, Vygotsky, Ovcharenko are known all over the world. These famous psychologists became true innovators in their field of study. For them, the science of the soul was an integral part of their life. Who are they and thanks to what scientific achievements did they become famous? Let's consider this issue in more detail.

Sigmund Freud

For many, the most famous psychologist is him. His revolutionary theory is known to almost everyone.

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in the Austro-Hungarian town of Freiberg. This man became a real expert in the field of neuroscience. His main merit is that he developed a doctrine that formed the basis of the psychoanalytic school. It was the famous psychologist Freud who put forward the idea that the cause of any pathology of the nervous system is a complex of conscious and unconscious processes that significantly influence each other. This was a real breakthrough in science.

Alois Alzheimer - psychiatrist who studied pathologies of the nervous system

The name of the German psychiatrist and neurologist is probably known to many of you. After all, it names a well-known mental disorder, accompanied by impaired memory, attention, performance and disorientation in space. Namely, Alzheimer's disease.

The neurologist devoted his entire life to the study of various pathologies of the nervous system. In his articles, he covered topics such as schizophrenia , brain atrophy, alcoholic psychosis, epilepsy and much more.

The works of the German psychiatrist are still widely used throughout the world today. Thus, in order to diagnose Alzheimer's disease, the same diagnostic methods are used that a neurologist used back in 1906.

Melanie Klein

In the “Famous Child Psychologist” category, her person ranks far from last. Melanie Klein was born in 1882 in the Austrian capital. She always recalled with nostalgia her childhood years, which were filled with happiness and joy. Melanie's interest in the science of the soul awoke after she experienced psychoanalysis twice.

Subsequently, Klein would write valuable scientific monographs on aspects of child psychoanalysis. And despite the fact that Melanie’s theory will run counter to the Freudian doctrine of child analysis, she will be able to prove that a simple child’s game can reveal many secrets of the child’s psyche.

Victor Emil Frankl

Famous psychologists of the world are also a scientist named Frankl. He was born in 1905 in the capital of Austria. He became famous for his unique discoveries in the field of not only psychology, but also philosophy. Thanks to Frank's efforts, the Third Vienna School of Psychotherapy was launched. He is the author of the monograph “Man’s Search for Meaning.” And it was this scientific work that formed the basis for the transformation of the innovative method of psychotherapy, which is better known as logotherapy. What is its meaning? It's simple. Throughout his existence, man has been trying to solve the problem of finding the meaning of life.

Adler Alfred

This man also belongs to the scientific luminaries who left a deep mark on psychology. He was born in Penzing, Austria in 1870. It is noteworthy that Alfred did not become a follower of Freud. He deliberately lost his membership in the psychoanalytic society. The scientist rallied around himself his own team of like-minded people called the Association of Individual Psychology. In 1912 he published the monograph “On Nervous Character.”

Soon he initiates the creation of the Journal of Individual Psychology. When the Nazis seized power, he stopped his scientific activities. The Alfred Clinic was closed in 1938. One way or another, he was the only expert in the field of psychology who defended the idea that the main component of personal development is the desire to preserve and develop one’s own uniqueness and individuality.

The scientist believed that a person’s lifestyle directly affects the quality of experience that he will gain in old age. This experience is strongly interconnected with the feeling of collectivism, one of the three innate unconscious feelings included in the structure of the “I”. The design of a lifestyle is based on a sense of collectivism, but it is not always subject to development and may remain in its infancy. In the latter case, quarrels and conflict situations may arise. The scientist emphasized that if a person can find a common language with others, then he is not in danger of becoming a neurasthenic, and he will rarely dare to act wildly and rashly.

Vladimir Lvovich Levi

In 1938, a son was born into a family of engineers (father a metallurgist, mother a chemist), who was destined to break the emerging dynasty and become a luminary of medical science - as well as a member of the Writers' Union!

Vladimir Lvovich Levi worked as a psychiatrist at the Kashchenko Hospital; Researcher at the Institute of Psychiatry. Among other things, he made an important contribution to the creation of a “helpline”.

He attaches great importance to the popularization of scientific knowledge and the dissemination of advanced ideas. Back in 1967, his debut work “The Hunt for Thought: Notes of a Psychiatrist” became widely known.

In total, Vladimir Lvovich published more than 30 popular science works. But his writing talent was not limited to prose - he wrote (and continues to write) poetry. In 2000, his poetry was published in the collection Crossed Out Profile.

Bluma Vulfovna Zeigarnik

This is also a world-famous scientist. The famous female psychologist Bluma Vulfovna Zeigarnik was born in 1900 in the Lithuanian town of Preny. She studied with such eminent psychology specialists as K. Levin, E. Spranger, K. Goldstein. Zeigarnik shared the scientific views expressed in Gestalt psychology. Opponents of this theory repeatedly tried to dissuade Bluma Vulfovna from attending Levin’s classes, but she remained adamant. The woman became famous for identifying a unique pattern, which later became known as the “Zeigarnik effect.”

Its meaning is simple. A female psychologist performed a simple experiment. She gathered a certain number of people and asked them to solve a particular problem within a specific period of time. As a result of the experiments, Bluma Vulfovna came to the conclusion that a person remembers unfinished actions much better than completed ones.

Hakob Pogosovich Nazaretyan

The merits of this scientist in the field of psychology of mass behavior and in the field of cultural anthropology cannot be overestimated. Hakob Nazaretyan is a native of Baku. The scientist was born in 1948. Over the years of service to science, he wrote a huge number of monographs, where he explored the problems of the theory of social development.

In addition, Akop Pogosovich became the author of the assumption that there is a techno-humanitarian balance in the world, which is in close relationship with technical progress and culture.

French clinical psychology

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Alfred Binet strictly distinguished French psychology from psychological schools of other countries:

With rare exceptions, the psychologists of my country have left the study of psychophysics to the Germans and the study of comparative psychology to the English. They devoted themselves almost exclusively to pathological psychology, that is, psychology that has been influenced by illness (adapted from Plas, 1996, p. 549).

In France, psychology developed as a complement to medicine. German experimental psychology focused on Plato's “normal, healthy human mind.” Scientists in Britain compared the intelligence of animals and humans, and Galton's work described a statistically average intelligence. French psychology explored the anomalous, non-Western and developing mind. Théodule Ribot (1842-1916), for example, called the madman, the savage and the child ideal subjects for scientific psychology, since, in his opinion, they represent experiments of nature itself, far superior in value to any laboratory experiments. So we saw that neuroscience was moving forward in both laboratory and clinical research. In clinical neuroscience, researchers have used nature's experiments—damage to the brain and nervous system caused by accidents and disease—to shed light on normal functioning. Ribot argued that psychologists were doing the same thing, studying the anomalous mind as a natural experiment that was not only interesting in itself, but also capable of illuminating | activity of normal consciousness.

The French clinical tradition introduced into psychology the concept of "subject", which is widely used today to describe people participating in psychological research. In French medicine the word sujet

means a person undergoing treatment or observation before his body is submitted for autopsy, or a candidate for surgery. Binet and other French psychologists adopted the term to refer to the objects of their psychological research. The word subject was used similarly in English, and was first used in the modern sense by Cattell in 1889. Binet's methods suggested that the French model of psychological research was different from the English and German ones. French psychology was more oriented towards extensive studies of individual subjects, which was inherited from medicine. German psychology represented the fruit of the evolution of philosophy and turned to the idealized reason that the Enlightenment philosophers wrote about. British psychology grew out of animal research and mental testing and was oriented toward statistical and comparative studies of the mind. - French psychologists paid much attention to hypnosis, which they associated with hysteria and its treatment (see Chapter 4). In this regard, two theories arose about the nature of hypnotic trance. A. A. Libol (1823-1904) founded his scientific school in Nancy. Subsequently, it was led by his student Hippolyte Bernheim (1837-1919). The Nancy school argued that the hypnotic state represents a co-

Chapter 2: Laying the Foundation 81

combat intensification of certain tendencies of normal sleep or wakefulness. Certain actions, even very clever ones, are performed automatically: we all react impulsively to certain suggestions; we all dream. According to the Nancy school, in a state of hypnosis, consciousness loses its usual direct control over perception and action, and the orders of the hypnotist immediately and unconsciously turn into actions or hallucinatory perceptions. A rival school, developed at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, argued that since orders given to a patient in a state of hypnosis could be used to eliminate the symptoms of hysteria, the hypnotic state must be completely anomalous, typical only of patients suffering from hysteria. The ability to succumb to hypnosis and hysteria were considered evidence of pathology of the nervous system. The main exponent of the ideas of the Salpêtrière school was Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893), with whom Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) studied for several months. Thanks to Freud, the study of hypnosis became part of the psychology of the unconscious, as he used hypnosis early in his career as a psychotherapist. Further study confirmed the concept of hypnosis of the Nancy school, but even today the exact nature of the hypnotic state remains unclear.


By the last quarter of the 19th century. The foundation of psychology as a natural science was laid. Scientific psychology had three sources that emerged at approximately the same time. The first source is traditionally considered the psychology of consciousness, since Wilhelm Wundt became the first doctor of philosophy in the field of psychology and because the psychology of consciousness was built on the legacy of philosophical psychology and has gone a long way towards becoming a scientific discipline. The second most famous source is the psychology of the unconscious - psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Since psychoanalysis began within the framework of psychiatry, Freud insisted that the former was a science and not simply a practical method of treating mental illness. Unlike the psychology of consciousness, psychoanalysis had broad and lasting cultural consequences. Finally, for academic psychology, especially in the USA and Great Britain, the most important source has become adaptation psychology. In many respects, adaptation psychology was the newest field, since its existence became possible only after the theory of adaptive evolution was put forward. The psychology of adaptation asked questions unknown to the philosophical and psychopathological schools, the most important of which were how the mind evolved and what is the advantage of the mind in the struggle for existence.

In all three of these schools of psychology, the idea that psychology could be socially useful faded into the background. Proponents of the German psychology of consciousness viewed psychology as a pure research science and resisted the development of "psychotechniques", although they did not suppress it completely. Freud, although he strived for psychoanalysis to become a science, considered the achievement of therapeutic success to be the measure of scientific truth.

He did not think of psychology as a field of activity that could be useful in any area of ​​life. Applied psychology was most welcomed by the psychology of adaptation: since it dealt with the problem of how the mind helps its owner adapt to the world around him, she naturally wanted every improvement in the mind, as well as for psychology itself to be useful for life. By the end of the 20th century. Psychology was rather not a science with applied branches, but rather an applied activity carried out with the support of science.


Because this chapter is a summary, I have omitted references in favor of a selected bibliography. Those wishing to obtain references may refer to Thomas H. Leahey, A History of Psychology,

5th edition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000), chaps. 2-6).

General work

Book by David Fromkin, The Way of World

New York: Knopf, 1998) is a superb brief (only 224 pages) outline of world history, covering the three eras of the lives of the people I briefly touched on at the beginning of this chapter.
On evolutionary psychology, see J. Barkow, L. Cosmides and J. Tooby, The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Direction of Culture,
New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
On human evolution in relation to the Agricultural Revolution, see Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (
Maiden, MA: Blackwell, 1998).
On the theory of the mind as an innate mental module, see Simon Baron-Cohen, Mindblindness: An Eaasy on Autism and Theory of Mind,
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).
Two serious authors have suggested that revolutionary changes have been taking place in the world since 1980. Peter Drucker developed the idea of ​​rational management of large enterprises; in his works “The Age of Social Transformation” (
Atlantic Monthly, November 1995) and “Post-Capitalist Society” (New York: Harper Business, 1994) he describes the passing industrial age and the coming information age.
Francis Fukuyama agrees with P. Drucker's conclusions and uses evolutionary psychology to make predictions about human life in the postmodern era, see his work The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order Nature and the Reconstitution of the Social Order,
New York, Free Press, 1999).

For a general history of Europe, where psychology took place, see: Norman Davies, Europe : A History,

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), or J.M. Roberts, History of Europe
: Allen Lane, 1996. Both books are very popular, but N. Davis's work, although notable for its comprehensiveness, is quite controversial; it received glowing reviews from reviewers in England, but many negative reviews from American historians.

For philosophy, see the following books: Roger Scruton, Modem Philosophy ,

New York, Allen Lane, 1994);
Ted Honderich, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy,
New York, Oxford University Press, 1995;
A. Kenny, The Oxford History of Western Philosophy Oxford:
Oxford University Press.

For physiology, see the following works: Stanley Finger, Origins of Neuroscience,

New York: Oxford University Press, 1996);
Louise Marshall and Horace Mangoun, Discoveries in the Human Brain,
Totawa, NJ: Humana Press.

On psychology, see: Thomas Leahey, A History of Psychology; Main Currents in Psychological Thought,

5th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000);
Roger Smith, The Norton History of the Human Sciences (
New York: Norton, 1997). The latter work is devoted primarily to psychology, but also touches on other social sciences.


The classic work is by Jacob Burkhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy.

New York: Mentor, 1862/1960);
Among later works, it should be noted: J. R. Hale, “The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance” (T. R. Hale, The Civilization of Europe in ihe Renaissance,
New York: Athaenium, 1994);
Denys Hay, The Italian Renaissance in its Historical Background,
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1961;
Lacey Baldwin Smith, The Elizabethan World,
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
On the Reformation, read: Ronald Bainton, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century,
Boston: Beacon Press, 1956.
On Renaissance thinkers, see: “The Philosophy of Renaissance Man” (ed. E. Cassirer, P. O. Kristeller and J. H. Randall, eds., Renaissance Phibsophy of Man,
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948);
Paul Kristeller, Renaissance Thought (
New York: Harper & Row, 1961);
D. Wilcox, “In Search of God and Self1. Thinkers of the Renaissance and Reformation" (L. Wilcox, In Search of God and Self: Renaissance and Reformation Thought,
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975);
a work that emphasizes continuity rather than rupture between the Middle Ages." renaissance - Walter Ullman, Medieval Foundations of Renaissance Humanism,
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.
For an overview of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, see: M. W. Tillyard, The Elizabethan World-Picture,
New Your: Vintage Books. Recently distinguished literary critic Harold

Bloom (Harold Bloom) in his work "Shakespeare: The Invention of Man" (Shakespear: The Invention of the Human,

New York: Riverhead, 1998) suggested that the first great psychologist was William Shakespeare. According to G. Bloom, he was so great that he literally invented the modern personality.

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Lev Semenovich Vygotsky

He is deservedly called the Mozart of psychology, although in fairness it should be noted that he initially studied completely different areas of knowledge. He entered the medical faculty, then transferred to law. And he even showed a remarkable interest in literature. The scientist also left a major mark on the science of the soul. Lev Vygotsky was born in 1896 in the Belarusian town of Orsha. This scientist can safely be included in the list called “Famous Psychologists of Russia.” Why? Yes, first of all, because he is the author of cultural-historical theory in psychology. As early as 1924, Vygotsky was critical of reflexology in his work. In his mature years, he began to study in depth issues of speech and thinking and created a research paper on this topic. In it, Lev Semenovich proved that the processes of thinking and uttering thoughts are closely interrelated with each other. In the 1930s, the scientist was subjected to real persecution for his views: Soviet officials tried to expose him in perversions of an ideological nature.

Mozart of psychology left behind several fundamental works and a huge number of monographs included in his collected works.

In his works, he covered the problems of psychological development of the individual, issues of the influence of the team on the individual. Of course, Vygotsky made a great contribution to the science of the soul and related disciplines: linguistics, philosophy, defectology, pedagogy.


The list was updated on June 30, 2005. Compiled by Dmitry and Marianna Lytov. A very important preface In books on socionics you will find large lists of “typed” celebrities. Reading them, you will be surprised to discover that the same people can be found in different types, and, as a rule, no explanation is given for this. Quite recently, at this place there was a list artificially collected from several sources (books by Stratievskaya, Filatova, as well as one American website) - it had the same problems. To understand whether everything is so hopeless in socionics with determining the types of famous people, you must first look into the history of Jung’s typology. Carl Gustav Jung himself generally avoided “typing” famous people. As long as we do not know the nature of the “typical” signs, as long as we see only their external manifestations, he believed, it is easy to fall into a mistake and get carried away by the “parlor game.” Moreover, Jung's closest students (Maria Louise von Franz, Daryl Sharp, James Hillman, Katharina Briggs, etc.) even disagreed about the type of Jung himself - either a thinking (in socionics - logical) introvert with auxiliary intuition, or an intuitive introvert with auxiliary thinking (speaking socionically - either “Robespierre” or “Balzac”). The creators of the first tests based on Jung's typology (Gray and Wheelwright, Singer and Loomis, Myers and Briggs) preferred to believe that type is the result of the test. Clearly, in this case, the question of celebrity types was extremely slippery and risky, since rarely did any celebrity decide to fill out the test. Only in the last 10-15 years have American “type watchers”, primarily David W. Keirsey and the Tigers (Paul Tieger & Barbara Barron-Tieger), begun to develop methods for remote determination of type, i.e. .e. without a test, through observations or analysis of historical facts. However, their methods are far from consistent with each other, and the differences between the American typists' "celebrity galleries" are striking (see links at the end of this page). Aushra Augustinavichiute, when she created socionics, did not know about the Myers and Briggs test (the first publication about it in Russian appeared only in 1984, and before that it was not even mentioned in domestic publications on psychology, including translated ones), and even more so more about other, lesser-known tests. She had to create definitions of traits almost from scratch, based on Jung’s “Psychological Types.” As a rule, “typing” occurred in the following way: the biography was analyzed for possible correspondence with Jungian characteristics and functions. But it was not easy - there were not even type descriptions (!), and the descriptions of features and functions were rather vague and ambiguous. However, if several different people classified as the same type showed common psychological patterns in their behavior, this was considered luck. Unfortunately, Ausra Augustinaviciute, in the absence of factual data, often relied on physiognomy: if celebrity N looks similar to M, whom we previously classified as type X, then N also belongs to type X. It is clear that Augustinaviciute’s lists of celebrities were quite contradictory. But at least a hypothesis was formulated. Since the late 1980s, socionicists from the Kyiv club began a detailed study of the types of famous people (by that time I.D. Vaisband created the first descriptions of 16 socionic types). At first, obvious “outsiders” were excluded from the Aushrin lists, who were similar to a certain type in a separate trait of their character, but nothing more. Detailed research articles were written on some of the famous people (here the greatest contribution was made by Yu. Perel, I. Dolgopolskaya, A. Bukalov, O. Karpenko, V. Gulenko, G. Chikirisova, A. Nemirovsky, S. Taratukhin and others. ). Although the Kiev residents did not agree on all the “candidates,” the Kyiv discussions became widely known in the socionic world thanks to annual conferences, the publication of socionic magazines, etc. At one of the conferences, Ausra Augustinaviciute admitted that her approach to “typing” celebrities was not always correct. Unfortunately, it was the first Aushrin lists, which did not contain justification for “typing,” that created the idea among young socionics that “typing” was extremely easy. According to the principle “Aushra can do it, that means we can too,” publications and books began to appear with ever longer lists of celebrities without the slightest justification as to why they belong to this particular type and not that type. We invite readers of these books to calculate the author’s “irresponsibility index” using a unique formula - count the number of “typed” ones in this book and divide it by the number of those in whose favor at least some factual justification was given. However, there were pleasant exceptions to this sad trend, which are listed below in the list of references. In recent years, new research has appeared, in particular, a series of articles by Marianna Lytova (Stovpyuk) about representatives of intuitive-logical types (not only scientists, as one might assume, but also writers)

ENTP - Don Quixote, "The Seeker", ILE Actors, performers: Viktor Bychkov, Natalie Bay, Jeff Goldbloom, Alexander Demyanenko, Jamie Lee Curtis, Stanislav Lyubshin, Alexey Nilov, Dustin Hoffman Heroes of books and films: D'ARTAGNAN (A. Dumas -father, “The Three Musketeers”, etc.), Don QUIXOTE (M. Cervantes, “The Adventures of a Cunning Hidalgo...”), Captain TUSHIN (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”), HIGGINS (B. Shaw, “Pygmalion” ) Writers, poets: Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Robert Sheckley Politicians, businessmen, military: Vladimir Ryzhkov Scientists, philosophers: Aushra Augustinavichute (founder of socionics), Niels Bohr, Galileo Galilei, Vitaly Ginzburg, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Karl Marx, Dmitry Mendeleev, Seneca, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Albert Einstein. Stovpyuk M.F. Bohr and Einstein: TIM and atypical differences - 03.15.2002//SMiPL, 2002, No. 3. Stovpyuk M.F. “World line” and the socionic type of George Gamow - 09/02/2001 //SMiPL, 2002, No. 1.

ISFP - Dumas, “The Mediator”, SEI Actors, performers: Nikolai Baskov, Leonid Bronevoy, Yuri Vizbor, Alexander Kalyagin, Elena Koreneva, Leonid Kuravlev, Evgeny Leonov, Andrei Makarevich, Stanislav Sadalsky, Kevin Spacey, Barbra Streisand, Oleg Tabakov Book characters and films: the old Count ROSTOV (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”), Sancho Panza (M. Cervantes, “The Adventures of a Cunning Hidalgo...”), CHICHIKOV (N. Gogol, “Dead Souls”), SVEIK (J. Hasek , “The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik”) Writers, poets: Yaroslav Gashek, Sergei Dovlatov, Andre Maurois, Mikhail Sholokhov Politicians, businessmen, military men: Alexander I, Kliment Voroshilov, Mikhail Fradkov, Nikita Khrushchev, Ella Pamfilova Television: Natalya Daryalova Scientists, philosophers : Abram Ioffe (physicist).

ESFJ - Hugo, "Lover of Life", ESE Actors, performers: Sandra Bullock, Juliette Binoche, Amalia Goldanskaya (formerly Mordvinova), Lolita Davidovich ("Inner Circle"), Emir Kusturica, Courtney Love, Paul McCartney, Clara Novikova, Sergei Minaev , Liza Minnelli, Natalia Oreiro, Willy Tokarev, Semyon Farada, Nikolai Fomenko, Vladimir Etush Heroes of books and films: Rhett BUTLER (M. Mitchell, “Gone with the Wind”), Beatrice (G. Green, “Our Man in Havana”), CARLSON (A. Lindgren, “Kid and Carlson”), Cola BRUNION (R. Rolland, “Cola BRUNION”). Writers, poets: Jules Verne, Victor Hugo Politicians, businessmen, military: Yasser Arafat, Bill Clinton, Sergo Ordzhonikidze Sports: Irina Slutskaya (skater) TV: Nikolai Drozdov Scientists, philosophers: Heinrich Schliemann, Friedrich Engels.

INTJ - Robespierre (or Descartes), “Analyst”, LII Note. Since the name of Maximalian Robespierre does not have a very good reputation, A.V. Bukalov (Kyiv) proposed calling this type “Descartes.” The pseudonym is gradually taking root among foreign supporters of socionics. Actors, performers: Regimantas Adomaitis, Juozas Budraitis, Patricia Kaas, Kevin Costner, Irina Kupchenko, Elena Mayorova, Valery Priyomykhov, Valery Ryzhakov, Isabelle Huppert, Oleg Yankovsky Heroes of books and films: ATOS (A. Dumas the Father, “The Three Musketeers” etc.), Vera Pavlovna (N. Chernyshevsky, “What is to be done?”), Ivan KARAMAZOV (F. Dostoevsky, “The Brothers Karamazov”), CORDELIA (W. Shakespeare, “King Lear”), THE BABY (A. Lindgren, "Kid and Carlson") Writers, poets: Anton Makarenko, Anton Chekhov Politicians, businessmen, military: Al Gore, Thomas Jefferson, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Sergei Ivanov, Vladimir Putin, Maximilian Robespierre, Irina Khakamada TV: Alexander Gordon Scientists, philosophers: Nikolai Amosov, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Rene Descartes, Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, Irene Joliot-Curie, Immanuel Kant, Pierre Curie, Andrei Sakharov, Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Erwin Schrödinger Artists, composers: Paul Gauguin, Sergei Rachmaninov ENFJ - Hamlet, " Mentor" ("Actor" ), EIE Actors, performers: Zhanna Aguzarova, Annette Bening, Nikolai Burlyaev, Melanie Griffith, Irene Jacob, Nastassya Kinski, Anna Kovalchuk, Mikhail and Kirill Kozakov, David Copperfield, Ilya Lagutenko, Jean Marais, Vladimir Mashkov, Arkady Raikin, Konstantin Raikin , Mickey Rourke, Alena Sviridova, Victor Sukhorukov, Milen Farmer, Alexander Filippenko, Charlie Chaplin Heroes of books and films: Hamlet (W. Shakespeare, “Hamlet, Prince of Denmark”), old man KARAMAZOV (F. Dostoevsky, “The Brothers Karamazov”), MARGARITA (M. Bulgakov, “The Master and Margarita”), Foma OPISKIN (F. Dostoevsky, “The Village of Stepanchikovo and Its Inhabitants”). Spiritual leaders: Jesus Christ, Muhammad (prophet) Writers, poets, spiritual leaders: Leonid Andreev, Friedrich Hölderlin, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Valentin Kataev, Eduard Limonov, Edgar Poe, Alexander Prokhanov, Marina Tsvetaeva, William Shakespeare Politicians, businessmen, military: George Bush Jr., Joseph Goebbels, Ernesto (Che) Guevara, Adolf Hitler, Ivan the Terrible, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Muammar Gaddafi, Alexander Kerensky, Nero, Paul I, Gleb Pavlovsky, Leon Trotsky, Nicolae Ceausescu Scientists, philosophers: Friedrich Nietzsche, Vladimir Solovyov Artists, composers: Amedeo Modigliani ISTJ - Maxim Gorky, “Inspector”, LSI Note. Since the name of Maxim Gorky has already been largely forgotten abroad, there is now a discussion about alternative pseudonyms of this type. Actors: Yuri Belyaev, Charles Bronson, Pierce Brosnan, Stanislav Govorukhin, Alain Delon, Don Johnson, Alexander Zbruev, Clint Eastwood, Glenn Close, Renata Litvinova, Nikita Mikhalkov, Alexander Rosenbaum, Steven Seagal, Leonid Filatov Heroes of books and films: ANNA ( F. Sagan, “Hello, Sadness”), Milady WINTER (A. Dumas the Father, “The Three Musketeers”), MALVINA (A. Tolstoy, “The Golden Key”), POSTMAN PECHKIN (E. Uspensky, “Three from Prostokvashino” ), FROCKEN BOK (A. Lindgren, “Kid and Carlson”). Spiritual leaders: Jean Calvin Writers, poets: Valery Bryusov, Maxim Gorky, Guy de Maupassant, Vasily Shukshin Politicians, businessmen, military: Boris Gryzlov, Dzhokhar Dudayev, Gennady Zyuganov, Alexander Lukashenko, Slobodan Milosevic, Nicholas I, Saparmurat Niyazov, Madeleine Albright , Donald Rumsfeld, Joseph Stalin, Saddam Hussein Sports: Anatoly Karpov (chess player), Svetlana Khorkina Artists, composers: Salvador Dali ESTP - Zhukov, “Marshal”, SLE Actors, performers: Nadezhda Babkina, Antonio Banderas, Richard Bartono, Marlon Brando, Michael Douglas, Lyudmila Zykina, Joseph Kobzon, Russell Crowe, Kirill Lavrov, Igor Lifanov, Madonna, Nonna Mordyukova, Al Pacino, Alexey Petrenko, Irina Rozanova, Nina Ruslanova, Mikhail Ulyanov, Rutger Hauer, Anthony Hopkins, Dennis Hopper Heroes of books and films : Antibiotic (A. Konstantinov, “Gangster Petersburg”), Chieftain (H.H. Andersen, “The Snow Queen”), Scarlett O'HARA (M. Mitchell, “Gone with the Wind”). Spiritual leaders: Martin Luther Writers, poets: Yuri Bondarev Politicians, businessmen, military: Lavrentiy Beria, Napoleon Bonaparte, Hermann Goering, Georgy Zhukov, Sergei Kirov, Hillary Clinton, Alexander Lebed, Yuri Luzhkov, Vladimir Lenin, Peter I, Emelyan Pugachev, Winston Churchill TV: Anatoly Kashpirovsky Scientists, philosophers: Sergei Korolev Artists, composers: Richard Wagner. INFP - Yesenin, “Lyric”, IEI Note. Since Yesenin's name is unknown abroad, there is now a discussion about alternative pseudonyms of this type (for example, Bradbury). Actors: Jennifer Aniston, Hugh Grant, Andrey Gubin, Ekaterina Guseva, Savely Kramarov, Lisa Kudrow, Alexander Lazarev Jr., Edward Norton, Clara Rumyanova, Nadezhda Rumyantseva, Iya Savina, Innokenty Smoktunovsky, Albert Filozov, Gennady Khazanov, Chulpan Khamatova Book characters and films: Florentino ARISA (G.G. Marquez, “Love in the Time of Plague”), THE MASTER (M. Bulgakov, “The Master and Margarita”), SIMON (Fr. Sagan, “Do You Love Brahms?”), Ashley WILKES (M. Mitchell, “Gone with the Wind”). Writers, poets: Andrei Bely, Ray Bradbury, Ivan Bunin, Sergei Yesenin, Andrei Platonov, Marcel Proust Politicians, businessmen, military men: Nikolai Bukharin, Yuri Gagarin, Georgiy Malenkov, Nikolai Ryzhkov (both former chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers), Nikolai Kharitonov (former agrarian, then the Communist Party of the Russian Federation) Sports: Evgeni Plushenko? Scientists, philosophers: Jean Jacques Rousseau, Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling Artists, composers: Frederic Chopin.

ENTJ - Jack London, "Entrepreneur", LIE Actors, performers: Natalya Andreichenko, Jean Paul Belmondo, Olga Volkova, Oleg Gazmanov, Matt Damon, Andrei (Andron) Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky, Brad Pitt, Zemfira Ramazanova, Robert Redford, Julia Roberts, Uma Thurman, Sigourney Weaver, Dmitry Kharatyan, Efim Shifrin, Sergei Yursky. Heroes of books and films: Smoke BELLEW (J. London, “Smoke Bellew”), Ostap BENDER (I. Ilf, E. Petrov, “The Golden Calf”, “The Twelve Chairs”), engineer GARIN (A. Tolstoy, “The Engineer’s Hyperboloid” Garin"), Martin EDEN (J. London, "Martin Eden"). Writers, poets: Richard Bach, Arkady Gaidar, Jack London, Walter Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson Politicians, businessmen, military: Tony Blair, Bill Gates, Boris Yeltsin, Alexander Zhukov (Deputy Prime Minister), John F. Kennedy, Sergei Kiriyenko, Ronald Reagan (or EIE?), Yulia Timoshenko, Anatoly Chubais Scientists, philosophers: Robert Wood, Lev Landau, Nikolai Timofeev-Resovsky, Richard Feynman, Enrico Fermi. ISFJ - Dreiser, “Guardian”, ESI Approx. Since the name of Theodore Dreiser is already being forgotten even in his homeland - in the USA, there is now a discussion about alternative pseudonyms of this type (for example, Salinger?). Actors, performers: Irina Alferova, Brigitte Bardot, Elina Bystritskaya, Anzhelika Varum, Mihai Volontir, Alla Demidova, Elena Drapeko, Igor Ilyinsky, Olga Kabo, Ivar Kalnins, Nikolai Karachentsov, Mikhail Kokshenov, Lev Leshchenko, Evgeniy Matveev, Julianne Moore, Vyacheslav Innocent, Michele Placido, Maya Plisetskaya, Michelle Pfeiffer, Nikolai Rastorguev, Ada Rogovtseva, Sofia Rotaru, Valentina Tolkunova Heroes of books and films: Clyde GRIFFITS (T. Dreiser, “An American Tragedy”), Dolly OBLONSKAYA (L. Tolstoy, “Anna Karenina” "), Sonya (L. Tolstoy, "War and Peace"). Writers, poets: O'Henry, Theodore Dreiser, Alexander Dumas fils, Alexander Ostrovsky, Jerome D. Salinger, Ivan Turgenev, Francis S. Fitzgerald, Stefan Zweig Politicians, businessmen, military men: Leonid Brezhnev, Sergei Glazyev, Elizabeth II, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Lyudmila Narusova, Nancy Reagan, Konstantin Raikov (“People’s Party”), Vladimir Yakovlev (former governor of St. Petersburg) TV: Ivan Demidov, Oksana Fedorova Scientists, philosophers: Mstislav Keldysh. ESFP - Caesar, "Politician", SEE Note. Although in the works of Aushra Augustinavichiute this type was called “Napoleon,” however, already in 1989 an article by Yu. Perel and I. Dolgopolskaya appeared, which substantiated that Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to another type - “Zhukov”, SLE. Most socionicists accepted this point of view, and therefore the SEE type received another pseudonym - “Caesar”, although a number of socionicists, out of habit, continue to use the pseudonym “Napoleon”. Actors, performers: Alexander Buinov, Drew Barrymore, Natalya Gundareva, Tatyana Dogileva, Tatyana Doronina, Claudia Cardinale, Natasha Koroleva, Igor Krutoy, Maxim Leonidov, Inna Makarova, Lolita Milyavskaya, Valdis Pelsh, Galina Polskikh, Elvis Presley, Elena Proklova, Alla Pugacheva, Masha Rasputina, Britney Spears, Elizabeth Taylor, Federico Fellini, Sherilyn Fenn, Goldie Hong Heroes of books and films: Pinocchio (A. Tolstoy, “The Golden Key”), Anna KARENINA (L. Tolstoy, “Anna Karenina”), Nastasya Filippovna (F. Dostoevsky, “The Idiot”), NONZNAYKA (N. Nosov, “The Adventures of Dunno”), NOZDREV (N. Gogol, “Dead Souls”), Natasha ROSTOVA (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”) Writers, poets: Maria Arbatova, Alexander Pushkin, Stendhal Politicians, businessmen, military: Silvio Berlusconi, Lech Walesa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Catherine II, Valentina Matvienko, Dmitry Rogozin, Mikheil Saakashvili, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Guy Julius Caesar, Jacques Chirac, Gerhard Schroeder, Victor Chernomyrdin Sports: Alina Kabaeva TV: Inna Gomez, Dmitry Dibrov, Vladimir Solovyov (“To the Barrier!”), Yuri Stoyanov (“Town”) Scientists, philosophers: Zhores Alferov. INTP - Balzac, "The Critic", OR Actors, performers: Woody Allen, Donatas Banionis, Oleg Basilashvili, Sergei Bondarchuk, Boris Grebenshchikov, Evgeniy Evstigneev, Evgeniy Zharikov, Mark Zakharov, Igor Kornelyuk, John Lennon, Julietta Mazina, Vsevolod Sanaev, Alexander Shirvindt Heroes of books and films: engineer Los (A. Tolstoy, “Aelita”), Pierre BEZUKHOV (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”), PECHORIN (M. Lermontov, “Hero of Our Time”, etc.). Writers, poets: Boris Akunin, Arkady Arkanov, Honore de Balzac, Jorge Luis Borges, Joseph Brodsky, Ivan Krylov, Stanislav Lem, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Mikhail Mishin, Haruki Murakami, Fyodor Sollogub, Alexey Nikolaevich Tolstoy, Lion Feuchtwanger, Vladislav Khodasevich, Aesop Politicians, businessmen, military: Askar Akaev, Yuri Andropov, Viktor Gerashchenko, Charles de Gaulle, Raisa Gorbacheva, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Mikhail Kutuzov, Evgeny Primakov, Eduard Shevardnadze, Alexander Yakovlev TV: Boris Kryuk (“What? Where? When?” ), Ilya Oleynikov (“Town”), Maxim Potashev (“What? Where? When?”) Scientists, philosophers: Ludwig Boltzmann, Evgeny Velikhov, Alexey Losev, Merab Mamardashvili, Isaac (Isaac) Newton, Blaise Pascal, Wolfgang Pauli, Henri Poincaré, Socrates, Benedict Spinoza, Carl Gustav Jung Artists, composers: Dmitri Shostakovich ESTJ - Stirlitz (or Holmes), “The Administrator”, LSE Note. The name of Stirlitz is practically unknown outside the former Union, so foreign supporters of socionics prefer the pseudonym “Holmes”, proposed by A.V. Bukalov from Kyiv. Actors: Gillian Anderson, Barbara Brylska, Karol Bouquet, Laima Vaikule, Greta Garbo, Ingeborga Dapkunaite, Marlene Dietrich, Olga Drozdova, Oleg Efremov, Georgy Zhzhonov, Milla Jovovich, Vasily Livanov, Igor Livanov, Sophia Loren, Klara Luchko, Tatyana Peltzer, Alexey Serebryakov, Evgeny Sidikhin, Oleg Strizhonov, Vyacheslav Tikhonov, Helen Hunt Heroes of books and films: Mary POPPINS (P. Travers, “Mary Poppins, Goodbye!”), Nikolai ROSTOV (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”), Sherlock HOLMES (A. Conan Doyle, series of stories), Patricia HOLMAN (E.M. Remarque, “Three Comrades”), STIRLITZ (Yu. Semyonov, “Seventeen Moments of Spring”, etc.). Writers, poets: Boris Pasternak Politicians, businessmen, military men: Boris Gromov, Richard Sorge, Dmitry Kozak, Helmut Kohl, Sergei Lavrov, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Vladimir Potanin, Anatoly Sobchak, Pyotr Stolypin, Margaret Thatcher, Ekaterina Furtseva, Sergei Shoigu, Viktor Yushchenko Sports: Sergey Bubka TV: Igor Kirillov, Kirill Kleymenov Scientists, philosophers: Alexey Leontiev, Pyotr Kapitsa Artists, composers: Wassily Kandinsky. INFJ - Dostoevsky, EII Actors, performers: Jeremy Irons, Natalya Belokhvostikova, Oleg Borisov, Valeria, David Dukhovny, Sergei Makovetsky, Georgy Martynyuk, Evgeny Mironov, Andrey Myagkov, Marina Neyolova, Gwyneth Paltrow, Evgenia Simonova, Vitaly Solomin, Maria Solomina, Yuri Solomin, Anatoly Solonitsyn, Igor Talkov, Ralph Fiennes, Carrie Fisher, Inna Churikova Heroes of books and films: Doctor WATSON (A. Conan Doyle, series of stories), Robert LOCKAMP (E.M. Remarque, “Three Comrades”), Marya Bolkonskaya (L. Tolstoy, “War and Peace”), Prince MYSHKIN (F. Dostoevsky, “The Idiot”), Sonya MARMELADOVA (F. Dostoevsky, “Crime and Punishment”). Writers, poets: Fyodor Dostoevsky, Nikolai Ostrovsky, Konstantin Paustovsky, Alexander Solzhenitsyn Politicians, businessmen, military men: Alexander Veshnyakov, Nicholas II, Friedrich von Paulus, Albert Speer Scientists, philosophers: Nikolai Berdyaev, Dmitry Likhachev Artists, composers: Vincent Van Gogh

ENFP - Huxley, IEE Approx. Another alias of this type is "Tom Sawyer". Foreign supporters of socionics prefer to use it, since in the English-speaking environment the scientist Thomas Huxley (Huxley) is often confused with his grandson, the writer Aldous Huxley. Actors, performers: Fanny Ardant, Liya Akhedzhakova, Vladimir Basov, Mikhail Boyarsky, Borislav Brondukov, Rolan Bykov, Gennady Vetrov, Whoopi Goldberg, Jude Law, Pierre Richard, Robin Williams, Tom Hulce (“Amadeus”, “Inner Circle”), Marina Khlebnikova, Leonid Yarmolnik Heroes of books and films: Julia LAMBERT (S. Maugham, “Theatre”), Siegfried LENZ (E.M. Remarque, “Three Comrades”), Tom SAWYER (M. Twain, “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”) Writers, poets: Heinrich Heine, Mark Twain Politicians, businessmen, military: Marat Gelman (political strategist), Steve Jobs TV: Mikhail Leontyev, Arina Sharapova Scientists, philosophers: Thomas Henry Huxley (Huxley), Bertrand Russell.

ISTP - Gaben, SLI Actors, performers: Alena Apina, Ekaterina Vasilyeva, Vladimir Vdovichenkov, Lino Ventura, Vladimir Vysotsky, Jean Gabin, Sergey Garmash, Mel Gibson, Larisa Guzeeva, Lyudmila Gurchenko, Armen Dzhigarkhanyan, Angelina Jolie, Nikolai Eremenko Jr., Rene Zellweger, Alexander Inshakov, Harvey Keitel, Lyubov Orlova, Edita Piekha, Meryl Streep, Margarita Terekhova, Sergei Shakurov, Adriano Celentano, Yuri Shevchuk Heroes of books and films: Fermina DASA (G.G. Marquez, “Love in the Time of Plague”) , Otto KESTER (E.M. Remarque, “Three Comrades”), MEGRE (J. Simenon, series of stories), Medea (L. Ulitskaya, “Medea and Her Children”), Huck FINN (M. Twain, “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" and others). Writers, poets: Anna Akhmatova, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Somerset Maugham, Francoise Sagan, George Sand, Jean-Paul Sartre, Georges Simenon, Dunya (Avdotya) Smirnova, Tatyana Tolstaya, Lyudmila Ulitskaya Politicians, businessmen, military: Andrei Gromyko, Alexey Kosygin, Aslan Maskhadov TV: Svetlana Sorokina Scientists, philosophers: Igor Tamm

Victor Ivanovich Ovcharenko

This outstanding scientist was born in 1943 in the city of Melekess (Ulyanovsk region). His achievements in psychology are incredibly enormous. Thanks to his research, the science of the soul has significantly advanced in its development. Viktor Ivanovich wrote more than one work of fundamental importance. The scientist analyzed sociological psychologism and deeply studied issues of interpersonal relationships.

His monographs were published not only in Russian but also in foreign media.

In 1996, Ovcharenko came up with the idea of ​​rethinking the historical periods of domestic psychoanalysis before the scientific community. He initiated the publication of publications in which he reflected the biographies of about 700 eminent people, including psychologists, philosophers, and cultural experts.

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